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Investigating how the Length of a Pendulum Relates to the Time it takes to Swing

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION        

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE        

Ruler and guitar string        

Interchange between K.E and P.E        

Length of arc        

Measuring lengths of arcs.        

INVESTIGATION        

Planing        

Prediction        

Pretest        

Fair test conditions.        

Method        

Apparatus        

Procedure        

Analysis        

Results        

Graph        

Conclusion        

THEORETICAL EQUATION        

EVALUATION        


Investigating how the Length of a Pendulum Relates to the Time it takes to Swing

Introduction

        The time of oscillation for a pendulum depends on many factors. I am investigating into these limiting factors and will try and determine how one of these factors effects the pendulum oscillations.          

Scientific Knowledge

Ruler and guitar string

        The vibration of a pendulum can be compared to the vibrations of a ruler or guitar string.

image31.png

These can be compared because each one obsoletes when it is plucked, pulled or swung. By making it swing different length arches, the pendulum’s pitch can be changed. By having more or less of the ruler on the desk, its pitch can be changed. The position of your finger can affect the pitch of a guitar string a.k.a. the string’s length. All are affected by length and the number of oscillations depends on its length. I will try to discover this ratio with a pendulum.      

Interchange between K.E and P.E

image07.pngimage00.pngimage01.png

image05.pngimage14.png

image30.pngimage04.pngimage27.png

image03.pngimage02.pngimage04.pngimage05.png

Higher the pendulum the more kinetic energy it has.

Length of arcimage01.png

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image05.pngimage05.pngimage08.png

image10.pngimage09.png

image11.png

image05.pngimage12.png

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The shorter the pendulum, the less time it takes to swing.

Measuring lengths of arcs.image06.pngimage17.pngimage16.pngimage05.pngimage19.pngimage05.pngimage18.pngimage08.pngimage21.pngimage11.pngimage20.pngimage23.pngimage22.pngimage26.pngimage25.pngimage24.pngimage01.pngimage05.pngimage15.png

30 cm = radius                                                60 cm = radius        

...read more.

Middle

image20.pngimage15.png

image22.pngimage28.pngimage23.pngimage25.pngimage06.pngimage07.png

image17.png

image08.png

image24.png

image29.pngimage05.pngimage05.png

Pretest

        I carried out a pretest on the pendulum. I took a pendulum at 10 cm. The time was less than a second, I preferred times more than one second long so next I tested 20 cm. Again the time was less than a second, so I tested 30 cm. 30 cm had a time just over a second so I decided to start there. All times are from taking the time for ten swings and dividing.

30 cm

31 cm

32 cm

33 cm

34 cm

35 cm

1.1 s

1.1 s

1.1 s

1.1 s

1.1 s

1.2 s

36 cm

37 cm

38 cm

39 cm

40 cm

41 cm

1.2 s

1.2 s

1.2 s

1.2 s

1.3 s

1.3 s

42 cm

43 cm

44 cm

45 cm

46 cm

47 cm

1.3 s

1.3 s

1.3 s

1.4 s

1.4 s

1.4 s

48 cm

49 cm

50 cm

51 cm

52 cm

53 cm

1.4 s

1.4 s

1.5 s

1.5 s

1.5 s

1.5 s

54 cm

55 cm

56 cm

57 cm

58 cm

59 cm

1.5 s

1.5 s

1.5 s

1.5 s

1.5 s

1.5 s

60 cm

61 cm

62 cm

63 cm

64 cm

65 cm

1.6 s

1.6 s

1.6 s

1.6 s

1.6 s

1.6 s

66 cm

67 cm

68 cm

69 cm

70 cm

71 cm

1.6 s

1.6 s

1.6 s

1.6 s

1.7 s

1.7 s

72 cm

73 cm

74 cm

75 cm

76 cm

77 cm

1.7 s

1.7 s

1.7 s

1.7 s

1.7 s

1.7 s

78 cm

79 cm

80 cm

81 cm

82 cm

83 cm

1.7 s

1.7 s

1.8 s

1.8 s

1.8 s

1.8 s

84 cm

85 cm

86 cm

87 cm

88 cm

89 cm

1.8 s

1.8 s

1.8 s

1.8 s

1.8 s

1.8 s

90 cm

1.9 s

        From looking at these results I decided that I would have nine lengths.

30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 cm.

I have decided to use these lengths because these are the only lengths that give different times.

...read more.

Conclusion

        I found this experiment quite interesting. It has made me interested in the factors that affect the time of an oscillation of a pendulum. If I were to do further work, I would like to investigate how the starting angle from which the pendulum is dropped affects the time of an oscillation.    

...read more.

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