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Investigating how the length of a simple pendulum can affect the time for a complete swing.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Pendulum Investigation

Contents

Plan

Prediction

Equipment

Safety

Method

Variable table

Preliminary Data

Results

Secondary Evidence

Result Table

Secondary Evidence Table

Analysis and Evaluation

Conclusion

Investigating how the length of a simple pendulum can affect the time for a complete swing.

Plan

Variables

Length – I am going to investigate the effect of using different lengths of string.

Size of swing – I am going to ensure that the size of swing is always the same.

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Prediction

image00.png

The diagram is showing two pendulums swinging.  The red one is twice as long as the blue one.  The blue pendulum is at a greater angle than the red pendulum.  I think the blue string pendulum will swing quicker than the red string pendulum, because it has a steeper angle, which will cause a greater acceleration.  It is also higher than the long pendulum so it has more potential energy at the same horizontal displacement.

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Equipment and Safety

image01.png

Equipment list

Digital stopwatch

One 200 gram mass

1 piece of string (100cm)

1 clamp stand

1 G-clamp

2 small wooden blocks

1 Protractor

1 meter ruler

1 Hanger

Safety

All the equipment must be constructed securely.  A G-clamp is necessary to support the clamp stand.  

...read more.

Middle

1. Varying the mass by 100g had little effect on the time for twenty     swings.

Length

(Cm)

Mass

(g)

Angle

(Cm)

Time for 20 swings (s)

60

200

10

30.63

60

300

10

30.75

2. Varying the angle of swing had very little effect on the time for twenty swings.

Length

(Cm)

Mass

(g)

Angle

(Cm)

Time for 20 swings (s)

60

200

10

30.94

60

200

30

31.33

3. Varying the length of the pendulum has a large effect on the time per twenty swings.

Length

(Cm)

Mass

(g)

Angle

(Cm)

Time for 20 swings (s)

60

200

10

31.51

80

200

10

36.32

From preliminary work I can see that the length of the

...read more.

Conclusion

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Conclusionimage00.png

This diagram shows how the blue pendulum has the most gravitational potential energy at the top of its swing because the angle is steeper.  This means the kinetic energy and speed through the centre will also be greater than the red pendulum. The steeper the arc the bigger the acceleration of the pendulum will be. A bigger acceleration means a shorter time for each swing.  Therefore as the string gets longer the time per swing gets longer.  There would have been very little air resistance because the mass was only 200 grams.  If the mass was larger there might have been an affect.  The pendulum moves by the force of gravity pulling on it.  If the pull of gravity were less I would expect the time for each swing to be longer.

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Graph

Using the results from the secondary evidence and the averages, I drew a graph and compared the two sets of data.  The graph shows a smooth curve with a positive gradient. This indicates that as the length of the pendulum is increased the period will increase.

See graph on next page.

...read more.

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