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Investigating How The Order Of Reaction Between Magnesium And An Acid Changes Using Different Acids And Varying Concentrations

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Introduction

Investigating How The Order Of Reaction Between Magnesium And An Acid Changes Using Different Acids And Varying Concentrations Sarah Taylor Planning: Reactions may take place at very different speeds. We need to understand what factors determine the rate of a reaction, and hence how to change the rate of a reaction. We then have the ability to control reactions more, and in industrial reaction the rate can be altered to suit the economics of certain manufacturing processes. Knowledge of how the rate of a reaction is determined is very important in providing evidence of that particular reaction mechanism. In this investigation, I am going to investigate how the order of reaction with respect to the acid varies when magnesium is reacted with acids of different types. I am also going to determine how the concentration affects the order and rate of the reaction. As a preliminary experiment, I took sulphuric, hydrochloric and ethanoic acid, and reacted them separately with magnesium powder. I used a conical flask which was connected by a rubber tube to a glass syringe, so that the amount of gas produced could be measured. This was simply a test to see roughly the quantity of gas produced by each, so that I could decide on appropriate concentrations for the acids, and also suitable time intervals at which to take the measurements. However, I found that when using sulphuric and hydrochloric acid, the reaction took such a short time before the whole 100cm3 syringe was filled, that it was impossible to accurately measure the rate. ...read more.

Middle

However, repeating the experiments simply backed up my original ones. Results of the reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium: time/s 0.5M 1M 1.5M 2M 0 0 0 0 0 10 3 11 22 45 20 5.5 23.5 55 62 30 8 30 65 83 40 10.5 37 75 91 50 12.5 41.5 81 95 60 14.5 45.5 85 98 70 16 48.5 88.5 80 18 51 91 90 19 53.5 93.5 100 20 56 94.5 110 21.5 58 95.5 120 22.5 59.5 96 130 23 60.5 97 140 24.5 62.5 150 25 63.5 160 25 65 170 25.5 66 180 26 67 Columns 2, 3, 4 and 5 show the volume of gas (in cm3) produced when different concentrations of hydrochloric acid are used in the reaction with magnesium. 0.5M hydrochloric acid 1M hydrochloric acid 1.5M hydrochloric acid 2M hydrochloric acid Results of the reaction between sulphuric acid and magnesium: time/s 0.5M 1M 1.5M 2M 0 0 0 0 0 10 13 25 35 40 20 23 41 61 66 30 30 53 76 81 40 36 62 84.5 88 50 40.5 69 91 92.5 60 44 75 94 70 47 80 97.5 80 49.5 84 90 52 88 100 53.5 110 55.5 120 57.5 130 59 140 61 150 62.5 160 64 170 65 180 66 Columns 2, 3, 4 and 5 show the volume of gas (in cm3) produced when different concentrations of sulphuric acid are used in the reaction with magnesium. 0.5M sulphuric acid 1M sulphuric acid 1.5M sulphuric acid 2M sulphuric acid Results of the reaction between ethanoic acid and magnesium: ...read more.

Conclusion

? Mg2+(aq) + H2(g) it is clear that this must be the rate determining step, and as this step takes the reaction to completion, it must also be the only step in the reaction. The same theory applies to the reactions of sulphuric acid and ethanoic acid with magnesium, as they all have the same rate determining step. Techniques: During my experiments, I noted a few operations which may have contributed to error, and which I would address if I were to perform this investigation again. After adding the acid to the magnesium inside the conical flask, there is a small interval before the stopper is put in when the gas can escape, below is a diagram of a better setup which would bypass this problem. The acid is poured into the separating funnel with the lower stopper shut, then the stopper can be opened to release the acid onto the magnesium, this provides a far more accurate and efficient way of adding the acid. pic pic pic pic pic pic pic pic pic pic pic pic pic pic As the reaction takes place, a small amount of acid spray is thrown up, and this can get in between the syringe and its containing cylinder, causing friction. Twisting the syringe can help to prevent the syringe from becoming stuck, but it still does not run smoothly, which could be affecting the results. Taking the syringe out and cleaning it with a dry cloth would help to minimize this effect. I would also use more different concentrations, so that when it came to plotting the graphs of rate against concentration, there would be many more points and so the graphs would be more accurate. Taylor_S ...read more.

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