Investigating how the rate of hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes varies.
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Investigating how the rate of hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes varies. Aim To investigate how the rate of hydrolysis of a halogenoalkane varies. Hypothesis 1-iodobutane will produce a yellow precipitate of silver iodide quicker because it has the lowest bond enthalpy and 1-bromobutane will produce a white precipitate before 1-chlorobutane because the strength of the bond decreases. I also think that it becomes easier for the bond between the carbon atom and the halogen to break. Introduction A halogenoalkanes are compounds made up of Carbon, Hydrogen and halogen atoms such as Fluorine, F, Chorine, Cl, Bromine, Br and Iodine I. Their general formula is CnH2n+1X. They are named by prefixing the name of the alkane with fluro, chloro, bromo and iodo respectively.
In a secondary halogenoalkane the halogen atom is covalently bonded to a carbon atom, which in turn has a covalent bonded to just two other carbon atom and. In a tertiary halogenoalkane the halogen atom is covalently bonded to a carbon atom, which in turn has a covalent bonded to just three other carbon atom. Mixing halogenoalkanes to ethanol evokes nucelophillic substitution to occur when heated, thus producing an alcohol, either Primary, Secondary or indeed tertiary alcohols are produced A nucleophilic substitution is where the halogen atom will leave the halide ion and so the atoms replacing the halogen must process a lone pair of electrons and a covalent bond forms.
Equipment Safety Spectacles, 6 test tubes, test tube rack, measuring cylinder, Clamp stand, 1 stand, 1 mat, Bunsen burner, 1-chlorobutane, 1-bromobutane, 1-iodobutane, ethanol, silver nitrate Method 1. Collect equipment, stand 3 test tubes in the rack. 2. Add 3 drops of 1-chorobutanane to one test tube, then 3 drops of 1-bromobutane to another test tube and 3 drops of 1-iodobutane to the 3rd test tube. 3. Now add 2cm3 of Ethanol to each test tube. 4. Light the Bunsen burner and in the other 3 test tubes heat 2cm3 of 0.02M Silver nitrate. 5. Once silver nitrate is near boiling quickly add 2cm3 to each halogenoalkane 6. Watch test tubes and record the order of precipitates appearing and the colour of each precipitate. Results Table Chorobutanane, Iodobutane Bromobutane, Colour of Precipitate Precipitate is slow to form Yellow White Order Third First Second 1
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