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Investigating how the velocity of a ball varies with the height of its release on a slope.

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Introduction

Investigating how the velocity of a ball varies with the height of its release on a slope. Safety There are no safety precautions needed besides normal laboratory safety rules. Variables * The gradient of the slope. * The height of the balls release. * The speed of the ball. All other factors will stay the same. * Material of the slope. * The horizontal surface the ball will travel along. * The same ball. * The stopclock used to time the experiment. Preliminary Experiment Apparatus The apparatus I will use is: a plank of wood, a ball, a timer, a ruler and a clamp. Method The apparatus will be set up as above and the ball will be released from various heights and timed from when the ball reaches the bottom of the plank to the end of the ruler. The gradient will be measured using a protractor. Conclusion From the preliminary experiment, the experiment was found to be safe and no other safety precautions will have to be made. The height was best at a maximum of 0.22m because any greater and the ball rolled too fast to measure the time it took. ...read more.

Middle

This will give us 8 results, which should be sufficient for a straight-line graph. When the ball reaches the end of the plank the stopclock will be started. When the ball stops rolling or reaches 1m the stopclock will be stopped. This will be done for each height the ball is released from. The time and distance travelled will be recorded and the speed at which the ball was travelling will be calculated for each height that the ball was released from. Measurements; Height will be measured in m. Time taken in seconds. Distance travelled in metres. The speed in m/s. Height (m) 1 2 3 Average Time Taken Distance Traveled (m) Speed Speed2 0.01 2.68 2.38 2.46 2.51 1 0.4 0.16 0.04 1.36 1.26 1.31 1.34 1 0.75 0.56 0.07 1.29 1.19 1.26 1.25 1 0.80 0.64 0.11 0.91 0.85 0.86 0.87 1 1.15 1.32 0.14 0.83 0.87 0.78 0.83 1 1.2 1.44 0.17 0.71 0.64 0.65 0.66 1 1.5 2.25 0.20 0.67 0.65 0.63 0.65 1 1.54 2.37 0.22 0.62 0.60 0.60 0.61 1 1.6 2.56 Conclusion The graph of v against h shows that as height from which the ball is released increases, the speed of the ball increases. ...read more.

Conclusion

would therefore be less than the value of v as the ball left the plank. Large h, High Speeds These results fall above the straight line. At high speeds the uncertainty in the measured time taken due to the reaction times of the experimenter is increased. Improvements A better method is needed to measure the speed of the ball just as it leaves the plank of wood. This could be done by making the ball pass through a light gate. The output from the light gate could be used to control a stopclock. This would eliminate the uncertainty due to human reaction times. Also known as Human Error. Where did the energy go? As the ball leaves the plank it is not only moving along but it is also rotating. This means there are two kinds of kinetic energy. Translational Kinetic Energy = 1/2mv2 Rotational Kinetic Energy = 1/2Iw2 I = a constant for the ball. w = the angular speed of the ball. Since the angular speed of the ball depends upon the speed at which the ball moves along, it turns out that it is still true that v2 is directly proportional to h. Richard Ellis ...read more.

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