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Investigating how varying the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate its reaction in a given time.

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Introduction

Investigating how varying the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate its reaction in a given time. Prediction: The collision theory worked on the idea that particles "crash" into the substance that they come in contact with therefore causing a reaction. The surface area has a big affect on this. Whatever I choose to be the size of my chips the particles will only collide with what is on the outside of the marble chips. If I choose big marble chips then there would still be lots of marble not exposed to the acid particles therefore not being able to react. Choosing small marble chips will give me a faster reading because there will be more marble to react. When you increase the concentration of a substance in a certain space, the number of particles in that substance increases. So by adding acid of a higher concentration, you are effectively cramming more particles of hydrochloric acid into the same space. This will mean that there is more particles to react with the marble than before. Going on this theory, I predict that, by adding acids of a higher concentration, I will see a faster rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

The weakest acid, which is 1 molar will be made by just adding 10 cm3 of 1 molar acid to a small measuring cylinder, will then be added to the chips and the bung will be placed in the top of the conical flask. As the acid is being added the stopwatch will be started and for 2 minutes, at 10-second intervals a line will be added, with the glass marker pen, on the measuring cylinder to show where the water was at that point. This will then be repeated again to make sure have reasonable results. If the results are totally different to the first set then the experiment will be repeated a third time to make sure that the results are reliable. The water will be filled up again, the marble chips restocked and the experiment will be repeated but with higher concentration of acid. These higher concentrations are: 1.45, 1.6, 1.75, 1.9. These concentrations will be carried out until the experiment is finished. Safety wise I am aware that I must wear safety goggles at all times, from as soon as i start the experiment to as soon as I finish. ...read more.

Conclusion

Results: 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Using 0.5 molar 5 7 11 15 20 24 29 33 37 41 44 47 Experiment two 4 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 35 38 41 44 Average 4.5 6.5 10.5 14.5 19 23 27.5 31.5 36 39.5 42.5 45.5 Using 0.75 molar 7 14 23 30 37 43 50 54 56 61 64 67 Experiment two 7 13 22 29 36 41 46 52 54 58 61 64 Average 7 13.5 22.5 29.5 36.5 42 48 53 55 59.5 62.5 65.5 Using 1 molar 13 27 37 47 55 60 66 72 74 76 79 83 Experiment two 13 27 37 48 57 63 67 74 76 78 83 85 Average 13 27 37 47.5 56 61.5 66.5 73 75 77 81 84 Using 1.5 molar Experiment two Average Using 1.75 molar Experiment two Average Conclusion: Following the results of my tests I can safely conclude that my experiment was a success. My prediction at the beginning was correct and the experiment went exactly as I had planned. I can say now that the more particles you cram in to one space the faster the reaction time. As I increased the concentration of the acid, the speed in which it reacted also increased. ...read more.

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