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Investigating how varying the concentration of Hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction.

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Introduction

Introduction: For two substances to react in the first place their particles must meet and collide. They must collide with enough force, sufficient amount of energy (called activation energy that is the energy needed to start a reaction) and in the right direction so a reaction can successfully occur. The rate of reaction is dependent on the number of successful collisions taking place. Some reactions are instantaneous, while some, like the metaphoric rock take millions of years. The rate of reaction can be calculated as the amount of product formed or used up per second. Title/ Aim: Investigating how varying the concentration of Hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction. Prediction/hypothesis: I predict that calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid will react together and that the higher the concentration the faster the rate of reaction. This is because as you increase the concentration you increase the number of particles in turn increasing the chance of particles colliding successfully. So I predict if the concentration is doubled then the rate of reaction is doubled. Apparatus: The following is a list of the equipment needed to carry out the practical: Conical Flask Delivery tube A narrow measuring cylinder to measure a smaller volume A large measuring cylinder to measure the collected gas A normal measuring cylinder for a larger volume Tub of water Weighing scale Stop watch Hydrochloric acid solution- 4 moles Marble chips to represent Calcium Carbonate Water bath Bunsen burner Thermometer Method: Diagram illustrating the layout of experiment: Firstly, I will set up the apparatus as the diagram above illustrates. ...read more.

Middle

The subsequent are the safety precautions I will take: At all times I will be wearing goggles even if I have glasses on because acid is harmful if it gets into the eyes and possibly go in through the side of my glasses. I will also handle acid carefully because it causes irritation to the skin. Having long hair, I will ensure to tie it back at all times. I shall not taste any of the chemicals and make sure to throw the lime stones in the bin and not in the sink as they will cause it to clog. In addition, I will not run around incase I bump into anything. I shall make sure to wipe any spills rapidly to prevent accidents from occurring. If a breakage of any of the equipment occurs I will immediately inform the teacher. Incase my skin starts becoming irritated I will also report it to the teacher. Secondary sources used: 2 GCSE Chemistry textbooks - 1) Chemistry for you by Colin Johnson 2) Chemistry for you by Lawrie Ryan The Internet Mrs. O'Hanlon's lessons The above mentioned sources were guidance in writing about the particle collision theory. Obtaining evidence: After carrying out the practical on the next page are the results I obtained tabulated: The acid concentration is the independent variable and the gas collected is the dependent variable. I had obtained the averaged results from this formula: Average result = first result + second result + third result 3 On the furthest right column of the tables are my results averaged. ...read more.

Conclusion

I had got a time of 48 seconds. The reason behind this difference was because I had forgotten to add the water. So I repeated the result and replaced the anomalous result for the new result: 55 seconds. From then on I made sure not to forget to add water by always double checking that I had added water and then checking the volume. If I were to repeat the experiment I would use a syringe because some carbon dioxide gas is soluble. Hence, I was not measuring all the carbon dioxide being produced. In addition I would use a SIV instead of weighing scales to accurately measure the surface area and the size of the marble chips. I would also make sure that the experiment would be performed in a single day so the temperature remains constant and that the solution used is the same being used through the entire experiment. I would also increase the number of tests and increase the amount of calcium carbonate so the reaction can slow down and allow for more accurate reading of the results to be taken to decrease the number of anomalous results and human error. This experiment provides only presents one example so it does not verify my hypothesis it only supports it. To confirm it I would have to do numerous test and use a much more wider range of results. To extend my investigation I would experiment using other variables such as, surface area, temperature, pressure for gas, and a presence of a catalyst. These variables would hopefully prove that they all help speed up a chemical reaction. Chemistry Investigation- Rates of Reaction - 1 - Salmin Kachchi 10S ...read more.

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