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Investigating Neutralisation.

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Introduction

Chloe Bell October 2000 Chemistry Coursework Investigating Neutralisation Information Under ideal experimental conditions (where no heat energy is lost to the surroundings) the following happens: - When 10.0 cm� 2.0 M hydrochloric acid is completely neutralised by 10.0cm� 2.0M sodium hydroxide solution, a temperature rise of 13.6�c is recorded. Introduction I will carry out a series of experiments to find out the neutralisation of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid, in conjunction with the results gained above. Variables The following are variables that we could change in the experiment: - Acid- Concentration Alkali- Concentration Strength (weak or strong) Strength (weak or strong) Volume Volume Control of Variables I will vary the concentration of the acid. The other variables mentioned above will be kept the same i.e. 10cm� of both acid solution and alkali, the same strength of acid and alkali i.e. 2M. The acid I will use is hydrochloric acid and the alkali I will use is sodium hydroxide. Firstly I am going to carry out the experiment mentioned above for part of my preliminary work, to see how close to 13.6�c I actually get so I have an idea of the conditions. Below is a table to show how I will vary the concentration of the acid. Volume of Acid (cm�) Volume of Water (cm�) ...read more.

Middle

This is because they are quite evenly spread out. I have also chosen these because I can process them and try to prove my prediction. I have decided not to use the acid concentration value 0.2M because this will give a high percentage error if the temperature rise is different on the separate tests e.g. say on one test the temperature rise is 1�c and on another the temperature rise is 1.5�c, the percentage error is 50 %, and this is very in-accurate. Also, we can only get to 0.5�c accuracy, so lower values of the temperature rise are more difficult to measure accurately. Results These are the results I have gained from my experiments: - Test 1 Acid Temperature (�c) Alkali Temperature (�c) Average Temperature of Acid and Alkali (�c) Concentration of Acid (M) Start Temperature (�c) Final Temperature (�c) Temperature Rise (�c) 21.0 21.0 21.0 2.0 21.0 33.0 12.0 21.0 22.0 21.5 1.6 21.5 28.0 6.5 21.0 21.0 21.0 1.0 21.0 25.0 3.5 22.0 22.0 22.0 0.6 22.0 25.0 3 22.0 23.0 22.5 0.4 22.5 24.0 1.5 Test 2 Acid Temperature (�c) Alkali Temperature (�c) Average Temperature of Acid and Alkali (�c) Concentration of Acid (M) Start Temperature (�c) Final Temperature (�c) Temperature Rise (�c) 21.0 20.5 20.75 2.0 20.75 34.0 13.25 21.0 20.5 20.75 1.6 20.75 29.0 8.25 21.0 21.5 21.25 1.0 21.25 27.0 5.75 21.0 20.5 20.75 0.6 20.75 25.0 4.25 21.0 20.5 20.75 0.4 20.75 24.0 3.25 Test 3 Acid Temperature (�c) ...read more.

Conclusion

I think that this experiment could be furthered to give us more information and evidence. Ways in which I could do this is by using a more thorough range, say to 0.1 molarity. This would give more results to work on and use to process evidence. I could also extend the procedure using higher concentrations of acid to see if the pattern is the same at the top end of the scale. The glass beaker could be put in a tin can and have insulating material stuffed into it. This would try to prevent heat loss to the surroundings, meaning that the heat couldn't escape and only heat the temperature, producing more accurate readings. Yet another extension I could make to the enquiry. My results are fairly reliable. I have concluded this because they are all reasonably close in comparison with each other and each other table. For example, for the 2.0M, tests 1 and 3 have the same value as that in the results table, and the result for test 2 is only1.25�c out. This is not that much, so we could say that the results are reliable. Also, the results for 0.6M are all fairly close: 3�c, 4.25�c and 4�c. These are reliable and show that the whole experiment was reliable, in the conditions that we had to deal with. 1 ...read more.

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