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Investigating Rates of Chemical Reactions.

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Introduction

Emily Carpenter Investigating Rates of Chemical Reactions. Planning. Introduction I am going to investigate how increasing the concentration of a substance affects the rate of reaction. I will be studying how increasing the concentration of Sulphuric acid affects the rate of reaction when added to Magnesium. The equation for this is: Magnesium + Sulphuric Acid ? Magnesium Sulphate + Hydrogen Mg (s) + H2SO4 (aq) ? MgSO4 (aq) + H2 Background Knowledge There are many factors that affect the rate of a reaction; these include temperature, concentration, catalysts and surface area. In my preliminary investigation I used the reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate Solution and dilute Hydrochloric Acid to study the effect of temperature on rate. When I mixed the reactants the solution went cloudy and eventually I couldn't see a cross on a piece of paper under the reaction vessel. I timed how long this took, then increased the temperature by 10?c and carried out the same experiment. I have given my results table below: Temperature (?c) Time taken for cross to disappear (seconds) ...read more.

Middle

I also don't need to include the sulphur as this is a spectator in the reaction and doesn't change. Safety When I carry out my experiment I will make sure that: * I wear safety goggles at all times * All bags and coats are kept at the side of the classroom and stools are stored under the desks. * Long hair is tied back. * There are no obstructions in the classroom. * All dangerous acids, chemicals etc. are treated with care. * All other laborotary rules are abided by. Equipment Here is a list of all the equipment I will need to carry out my experiment. Measuring cylinder Scissors Test tube 5 sets of 5cm3 sulphuric acid in concentrations of 0.5M, 1.0M, 1.5M, 2.0M, 2.5M . 5 pieces of magnesium of a length of 1cm each. Ruler Thermometer Stop watch Method 1. Measure 5cm3 of sulphuric acid, of concentration 0.5M into a test tube and take the temperature. 2. Add a 1cm piece of magnesium into the test tube and start the stop watch. ...read more.

Conclusion

I think my results followed my prediction to a certain extent and I can explain what took place using the collision theory. As I increased the concentration there were more particles, so there was a higher probability of head on collisions so the rate increased. From my graph I I can see tat this is true because the time taken for the experimentto take place wadid increase steadily. I also said that if doubled the amount of sulphuric acid I doubled the amount of particles in the vessel, whish I have proved to be true. I thought this would mean that the rate of reaction would double too. When I processed my results I worked out the rate of each concentration using the average time.This was not true, from 0.5M to 1.5M the rate almost increased two times the original. Whereas from 1.0 to 2.0 the rate did not manage to double. I can explain this because the reaction was exothermic so energy could have been lost as the reaction progressed. ...read more.

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