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Investigating Rates of Reaction.

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Introduction

Investigating Rates of Reaction - Planning Na2S203 + 2HCL 2NaCl + SO2 + H2O + S Reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid The rate of a chemical reaction is the speed at which reactants are converted to products. Some reactions are very fast and some are very slow. In order for a chemical reaction to occur, particles of the reactants involved must collide with one another at the correct angle and with the correct amount of energy. The factors that affect the rate of a reaction are the surface area, concentration, temperature, and catalysts. In my experiment, I will be investigating the affect that concentration has on rates of reaction. I will use the above reaction and will use a range of concentrations of hydrochloric acid. Firstly I will do a preliminary experiment to gain experience in order to set up a more sophisticated experiment to gain my final results. Preliminary Work: Results: In 90 seconds light intensity changed from 92% to 85% using 50cm3 thiosulphate and 5cm3 of hydrochloric acid (1M). This shows that the reaction produces a precipitate of sulphur, which eventually makes the solution opaque. For this experiment I used the computer program "Logit" to measure the light intensity. I would have used this in my next experiment to make readings as accurate as possible, but the equipment wasn't available to me at the times I wanted to carry out my experiment. ...read more.

Middle

Treat glass containers with care. If smashed, inform a teacher and stand well clear from glass. Follow all laboratory rules to avoid accidents. For example, do not run and do not eat in labs. Prediction: I predict that as the concentration of the acid increases, the reaction will occur more quickly. This is due to the collision theory, which states that as concentration increases, so does the amount of particles in the solution, which means there is a greater chance of a collision with a force that is sufficient to result in a reaction, therefore increasing the rate of reaction. Results: To make the results I collected as precise as possible, I used the most accurate equipment I could and used great care when taking results and measuring. Measurements were taken with a burette to ensure the same volumes of chemicals were used in each experiment and so that concentrations were as accurate as possible, as if the concentrations were inaccurate, this could affect my results. The room temperature was measured and remained constant throughout each experiment and the test was repeated twice to ensure any anomalies could be identified. As I had many results I could calculate an average set of results. TABLE 1 Concentration Of Hydrochloric Acid (M) Time Taken for Solution to Become Opaque (Seconds) ...read more.

Conclusion

Particles must collide with sufficient force to react. Particles gain kinetic energy as they gain heat, and therefore as the heat of the acid is increased, there is a greater chance that the particles will collide. I would need the following equipment: Stop clock Paper with black cross drawn on 100cm3 Conical Flask 100cm3 Measuring Cylinder Thermometer Sodium Thiosulphate 0.1M Hydrochloric Acid 1M Water Bath I would use a water bath to heat the acid, as using a Bunsen burner would be more dangerous. In order to ensure a fair test is carried out the temperature of the hydrochloric acid must be the only variable that is changed. The concentrations of the chemicals will affect the reaction speed, as there are more particles on the solution, there is a greater chance that they will collide. This means I must change only the temperature of the hydrochloric acid; the concentration of the sodium thiosulphate and acid must remain the same for each experiment. This is because any inconsistency would make the test unfair. Measurements should be taken accurately with a burette to maintain the same volumes of chemicals for each experiment. I must make sure that the hydrochloric acid is heated to the correct temperature, and it must be added to the sodium thiosulphate as soon as it is removed from the water bath. Repeat the test twice to collect many results: this will highlight any irregularities. ...read more.

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