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# Investigating rates of reaction with the amount of carbon dioxide produced when various concentrations of hydrochloric acid are reacted with calcium carbonate.

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Introduction

Noel Modarres - Rates of reaction coursework Introduction Aim: In this experiment I am investigating rates of reaction with the amount of carbon dioxide produced when various concentrations of hydrochloric acid are reacted with calcium carbonate. The formula equation for this reaction is: CaCO3(s) + 2HCL (l) CaCl2 (aq) + H20 (l) + CO2 (g) The main objective in this experiment is to find out how much and how quickly carbon dioxide is produced when the following concentrations of Hydrochloric acid 0.25. 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2.0 are reacted with calcium carbonate. This is to determine whether changing the concentration of a substance (HCL) and keeping the other substance (CaCO2) at t he same amount will affect how much and how quickly a reactant (CO2) is produced. Background knowledge For doing experiment I need to take all my previous back round knowledge into full consideration so that I can make a clear and accurate prediction on for my final experiment. I need to know how changing different variables of the experiment will affect the rate of reaction. All the variables are part of the Collision Theory. 1. Increasing Temperature Increasing the temperature of the experiment will increase the rate of reaction. When the temperature increases the particles move quicker and so there are more collisions. 2. Increasing Concentration Increasing the concentration of the solution will increase the rate of reaction. If the solution is more concentrated then there are more particles of reactant knocking about between the water particles. This makes collisions more likely to occur. 3. Increasing Surface Area Increasing the surface area will increase the rate of reaction. If there is more area for reaction, more collision will occur. 4. Introducing a Catalyst A catalyst works by giving the reacting particles a surface to stick on where they can bump into each other. This obviously increases the number of collision too. ...read more.

Middle

8 ml 16 ml 50 0 ml 0 ml 0.5 ml 2 ml 5 ml 6.5 ml 11.5 ml 20 ml 60 0 ml 0 ml 1 ml 3 ml 8 ml 9 ml 15 ml 25.5 ml 70 0 ml 0.5 ml 2 ml 5 ml 10 ml 12 ml 18 ml 30 ml 80 0 ml 1 ml 3 ml 7 ml 12.5 ml 13.5 ml 21 ml 34.5 ml 90 0 ml 2 ml 4.5 ml 9.5 ml 14.5 ml 16 ml 25 ml 37 ml 100 0 ml 3.5 ml 5.5 ml 11 ml 17 ml 18 ml 26 ml 37 ml 110 0 ml 5 ml 7 ml 13 ml 18.5 ml 21 ml 28.5 ml 37 ml 120 0 ml 6 ml 8 ml 14 ml 21 ml 23.5 ml 30 ml 37 ml Experiment 2 Concentration 0.25 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.25 1.5 1.75 2.0 T I M E T A K E N 10 0 ml 0 ml 0 ml 0 ml 0 ml 0.5 ml 2 ml 1.5 ml 20 0 ml 0 ml 0 ml 0 ml 0 ml 1.5 ml 3.5 ml 4 ml 30 0 ml 0 ml 0 ml 1 ml 1 ml 3 ml 6 ml 8 ml 40 0 ml 0 ml 0 ml 1.5 ml 2 ml 6 ml 9 ml 13 ml 50 0 ml 0 ml 0.5 ml 3 ml 3.5 ml 8.5 ml 12.5 ml 17 ml 60 0 ml 0 ml 1 ml 3.5 ml 6 ml 11 ml 16 ml 21 ml 70 0 ml 1 ml 1.5 ml 6 ml 7 ml 14 ml 20 ml 25.5 ml 80 0 ml 2 ml 2 ml 7.5 ml 9 ml 16 ml 22 ml 31.5 ml 90 0 ml 2.5 ml 3 ml 11 ml 10.5 ml 18.5 ml 25 ml 35 ml 100 0 ml 3.5 ml 4 ml 13 ml 13 ml 21 ml 26.5 ml 37 ml 110 0 ml 5 ...read more.

Conclusion

Two repeats were taken so that a more accurate average could be obtained. If perhaps four repeats had been taken then the graph would have been closer to a line of best fit. The experiment was carried out in the most suitable way possible, given the limitations of resources. The procedure was carried out to a degree of accuracy that enabled us to produce conclusive results and graphs. While I have shown ways in which the experimental method could be improved, the experiment was performed well considering the equipment that was available. This experiment showed us that the aspect of when the concentration increases so does the rate of reaction in the collision theory is correct. In the future we can use the same experiment to prove other aspects of the collision theory. To do this we just change the variable of the experiment. For this experiment the concentration of HCL was the variable. For example we can change the temperature of the surrounding of the experiment and then see if this increasing the rate of reaction as stated in the collision theory. Also we can crush the pieces of calcium carbonate into smaller pieces to increase surface area and see whether this increases the rate of reaction. The collision theory also states that a catalyst can be added to a reaction and this will too increase the rate of reaction. So to our experiment once normally and then do it again using a catalyst and then comparing results at the end to see whether the rate of reation increased. My school did not have enough resources for me to be able to create the 8 different concentrations of hydrochloric acid and we did not have permission. So it was not my fault. Also I would have liked to have used pipits and burettes instead of measuring cylinder to gain more accurate measurements, however due to lack of equipment again this is not an option that had. ...read more.

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