• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19
  20. 20
  21. 21
  22. 22
  23. 23
  24. 24
  25. 25

Investigating the abiotic factors that affect the size of Ivy leaves in shaded and unshaded habitats.

Extracts from this document...


Investigating the abiotic factors that affect the size of Ivy leaves in shaded and unshaded habitats. Introduction Ivy is any one of a large number of creeping or climbing vines. These vines have different botanical names, and the word ivy, as commonly used, does not belong to any one plant. It often applies to climbing vines, especially to those that are ornamental. The particular one being looked at in this experiment is the common, or English, ivy. English ivy is the plant that makes such an attractive picture as it climbs over walls and tree trunks in Europe and North America. Its waxy leaves usually have five points, or angles. They are dark green in summer and turn bright scarlet in the fall. The plant retains its leaves all year. English ivy also bears tiny flowers. This ivy clings to smooth surfaces with the fine roots on its stems. It does not grow well in the bright sun of the central, southern, and western United States. But in shady locations, it can be grown as far north as Ontario, Canada. It makes an excellent covering for buildings. Its leaves and berries are poisonous. English ivy belongs to the ginseng family, Araliaceae. The scientific classification would be Hedera helix. Being an evergreen plant it has the advantage of being able to photosynthesis during the winter months whereas deciduous trees are dormant. The increased light that is available, by the absence of deciduous leaves allow it to grow more rapidly up the trunk of the host tree. The evergreen leaves of the plant also inhibit the leaves of the deciduous tree thereby suppressing the growth of the host tree. The increased openness of the tree crown further stimulates the growth of the vine. As the ivy climbs up the host tree to reach the canopy, the density of the vine as well as the weight of the water and ice on the leaves increases the weight of trees. ...read more.


* The light probe was taken and pointed towards the clipboard to give three different values at 50cm intervals (at 50cm, 100cm and 150cm). Air Humidity * Using a whirling hygrometer. Consists of thermometers; the bulb of one being kept dry while the other permanently wet. Both are mounted on a frame. The hygrometer will be rotated in the air until both thermometers give a constant reading. * The wet bubble thermometer will always give a lower reading than the dry bubble one, due to the cooling effect of the evaporating water. Then by looking at the different between the two thermometers and using a special scale we can work out the humidity as a percentage. Air Temperature * The probe was held at 1m above the ground and the reading displayed was recorded. Soil Temperature * The probe was placed into the soil within the quadrat. * It was pushed into the soil until it reached a maximum; the value displayed was then recorded. Wind Speed * This was done by twisting an anometer in the direction of the wind. * Value was recorded. pH Meter * This was placed within the area where the quadrat had been placed. * It was pushed into the soil until it reached a maximum the value was then recorded. 8. Now take a soil sample using a trowel and place in a plastic bag, take this back to the classroom to find out the pH and nutrient contents of the soil. (Details of the pH and NPK test are after the method) 9. Now repeat the above steps again in the unshaded region. Once all the results have been obtained from both habitats, the t-test or Chi2 tests are statistical tests, which can be used to analyse the results. To show whether there is a significant difference between the two sets of data. I will be using the t-test (justifications of using this method of analysis are explained before carrying out the test). ...read more.


The null hypothesis stated: 'There will be no difference between the sizes of leaves growing in the shaded and unshaded region; any difference in size will be due to chance'. As the t-value I have worked out is greater than the critical value. This suggests that there is a significant difference between the cross-sectional areas of leaves which are growing in a shaded region than those that are growing in an unshaded region. The leaves in the shaded area are larger in size compared to leaves in the unshaded area. Hence, proving my hypothesis. Generally my experiment was a success, my reading were fairly accurate and reliable. From my finding I can now say that there is a significant difference between the size of ivy leaves in an unshaded region and a shaded region. It is clear that the leaves are larger in size in the shaded region as oppose to the leaves from the unshaded region. This is primarily affected by the different light intensity which was measured in both areas. The light intensity was higher in the unshaded region and lower in the shaded, which in affect caused the difference in size of the leaf. Other abiotic factors were also taken into consideration: humidity, soil and air temperature, wind speed, pH and NPK concentration. These did vary between the two regions, they were abiotic variable which were uncontrollable and therefore could have affected the results obtained. Despite this, it can still be firmly concluded that light intensity has an apparent affect on the size and shade of grebe of ivy leaves from unshaded and shaded areas. For future experiments I would look to use a larger sample size, take more reading for light intensity, and for other abiotic factors. Moreover I would investigate the other abiotic factors which could influence the size of ivy leaves, and take biotic factors into consideration as well. By carrying out the experiment in both areas on several days, or doing several experiments simultaneously, may help me to make a more generalised conclusion. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Green Plants as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Green Plants as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigate which surface of a leaf loses more water by transpiration.

    3 star(s)

    * Spread the Vaseline as equally and thinly as possible because this will cut down the percentage error * Have two test leaves to check whether or not the test has been fair, one with Vaseline on both sides to check whether the leaf can still transpire or not, and

  2. Peer reviewed

    An Investigation into the Effects that Different Light Intensities have on the Speed of ...

    5 star(s)

    The response of woodlice to solid objects (or other woodlice) is called thigmokinesis. This response is such that woodlice are most active when contact with a solid object is minimal i.e. when only its feet are touching the ground. As soon as other parts of the body touch another surface, woodlice slow down and may even stop i.

  1. Does Leaf Surface Area Affect the Rate of Transpiration in a Plant?

    * Water * Ruler * Oil * Test tube rack * Measuring cylinder Diagram: This is how I intend to set up my apparatus; Method: 1. Select three large sycamore leave and make sure they are all a similar size.

  2. The effect of wind speed on the rate of transpiration.

    The leaf 1) Stomata: by evaporation of water from cells and diffusion of the water vapour through stomata, the pores found in the epidermis of leaves and green stems (about 90%). Each pore is called a stoma when stoma open the hole that allows carbon dioxide to pass into the leaf also lets water molecules out.

  1. The investigation is aiming to look at transpiration.

    of reducing the rate of transpiration, as water potential gradient are less steep. Any air movement can move water molecules away from the surface of the leaves thus creating steeper water potential gradient and therefore increasing the rate of transpiration.

  2. Conducting an experiment to find out what effect the surface area has on the ...

    Plants have adaptation this prevents extreme water loss. These factors will be very little of importance, as my experiment will be carried out in a lab where there will be no change in wind or atmospheric pressure. 5) Water supply: This factor is also very important as plant depend on the water supply to transpire.

  1. Investigating the relationship between the transpiration rate of a shoot and the degree of ...

    To make an air bubble I shall have to take the glass tube out of water and rub the end to remove excess water. When I place the tube in water I shall be able to view an air bubble. 7. I will start the stopwatch for 2 minutes.

  2. An experiment to investigate the water loss from leaves through stomata.

    My prediction was correct. This was be However I also stated that leaf 3 would lose as much water as leaf 4 but I was incorrect as leaf 4 lost more water. This was an anomalous result. In the result there are no patterns or trends.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work