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Investigating the affect of concentration on the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Anna Belcher Chemistry Investigating the affect of concentration on the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid Background Knowledge In this investigation I will be measuring the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. The rate of a reaction tells us how quickly a chemical reaction happens. Reaction Rate = change in volume, mass or concentration of substance Time taken There are two ways to measure the rate of a reaction, by observing how quickly the reactants are used up or by observing how quickly the products are formed. Measurements of the rate of reaction can be taken in three main ways: * Measuring the rate of precipitation * Measuring the volume of gas * Measuring the change in mass The results gained from these experiments can be drawn on a graph, which enables the rate of reaction to be worked out. In a chemical reaction atoms are rearranged. In order for a reaction to occur the molecules must collide by coming together. However not all collisions are effective. This is because in gases and liquids, particles are constantly moving causing millions and millions of collisions every second. If there were a reaction every time molecules collided all chemical reactions would only take a few seconds. This is why only a small fraction of the collisions between the particles have an effect. When particles collide head on and are fast moving a reaction occurs. This is because if collisions between particles have enough energy a reaction will occur. In gases, liquids and in solution, the particles move at a range of speeds. Some are moving very slowly and others are moving very fast. To react, particles must collide with enough energy and in the correct orientation for bonds to be broken. This is because for a chemical reaction to take place, some bonds in the reactants must be broken. In a chemical reaction if the activation energy is low many of the collisions will have enough energy so the reaction will ...read more.

Middle

1 x stop watch Magnesium Powder Hydrochloric Acid of concentration 0.8M, 1.0M, 1.2M, 1.4M, 1.6M Method 1. Set up apparatus as shown in the diagram opposite 2. Measure out 15ml of 0.8M hydrochloric acid using a 25ml measuring cylinder. Pour the acid into a 100ml beaker. 3. Place the boat on the balance and tare the balance. Add 0.1g of magnesium powder using a spatula. 4. Place the beaker with acid and the boat with magnesium on the balance and tare it. 5. Pour the magnesium powder into the beaker of hydrochloric acid and put the empty boat back on the balance. Start the stopwatch at the same time as the magnesium is added. 6. Record the mass loss every 5 seconds and record the results in a table. 7. Repeat steps 1 to 6 with concentrations 1.0M, 1.2M, 1.4M and 1.6M 8. Repeat steps 1 to 7 twice more to make results more reliable and find the average mass loss at each time for each concentration. Mass loss (g) Time (s) Try 1 Try 2 Try 3 Average 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.04 10 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 15 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 20 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 25 0.09 0.09 0.10 0.09 30 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 35 0.11 0.10 0.11 0.11 40 0.12 0.11 0.12 0.12 45 0.12 0.11 0.13 0.12 50 0.13 0.12 0.14 0.13 55 0.13 0.12 0.14 0.13 60 0.14 0.13 0.14 0.14 65 0.14 0.13 0.15 0.14 70 0.15 0.13 0.16 0.15 75 0.15 0.13 0.16 0.15 80 0.15 0.13 0.16 0.15 85 0.15 0.14 0.17 0.15 90 0.15 0.14 0.18 0.16 95 0.15 0.14 0.18 0.16 100 0.15 0.15 0.18 0.16 105 0.15 0.15 0.18 0.16 110 0.15 0.15 0.18 0.16 115 0.15 0.15 0.18 0.16 120 0.15 0.15 0.18 0.16 125 0.15 0.15 0.18 0.16 130 0.15 0.15 0.18 0.16 135 0.15 0.15 0.18 0.16 140 0.15 0.15 0.18 0.16 Results for 0.8M Mass loss (g) ...read more.

Conclusion

Also to stop the variation in temperature a water bath could be used. This would allow me to carry out the experiment at a set temperature. I would also use a balance that records the change in mass to 3 decimal places. I think that this is necessary because the change in mass was not that large due to the fact that the gas given off was hydrogen. Hydrogen is very light causing the mass loss to be small. Using a balance to 3 decimal places would record the loss in mass more accurately. I could also have hooked the balance up to a computer causing the results to be recorded electronically. This would make the results much more accurate. I used a measuring cylinder to measure the 15ml of hydrochloric acid, this was because there was not a 15ml pipette available. However using a pipette and pipette filler would have been a more accurate way of measuring the acid. I think that I have sufficient evidence so support my conclusions however the results could be made more accurate by using a larger range of concentrations or recording the change in mass at a greater number of intervals. This would make the line of best fit more accurate. I could also try to take more readings at the start of the reaction, as this is when the rate of reaction is fastest. This would also make the graph easier to plot. I could also repeat each experiment a greater number of times in order to make my results more reliable. I could extend the experiment by changing the product collected. This could be done by using marble chips instead of magnesium causing carbon dioxide to be collected. This would also make the change in mass easier to record because carbon dioxide gas has a Mr value of 44 whereas hydrogen has a Mr value of 2. I could also investigate other factors that affect the rate of a reaction such as surface area and mass of magnesium, volume of acid and temperature to see if I get similar results. ...read more.

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