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Investigating the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid on the Rate of Reaction.

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework Investigating the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid on the Rate of Reaction In this coursework I am going to investigate the rate of reaction and how this is increased or decreased by the concentration of acid I will use. My aim in this experiment is to find the concentration of acid which will produce the fastest reaction. When carrying out my experiment I will use the following equipment: measuring cylinder conical flask clamp stand plastic beaker thistle funnel ice-cream tub The chemical reaction which occurs in this experiment will be: Calcium + Hydrochloric Calcium + Water + Carbon Carbonate Acid Chloride Dioxide CaCo (s) + 2HCl (aq) CaCl (aq) + H O + CO I will perform several experiments using the previous apparatus to see which concentration of hydrochloric acid will yield the most carbon dioxide. Apparatus Set Up Method To carry out my experiment I will set up my apparatus as I have previously shown. I will also need: * Three measuring cylinders - a large on which is to be used in the experiment and two smaller ones to measure the acid and water in. * 5 grams of Calcium Carbonate - measured out using a top pan balance. Firstly I will set up the above apparatus and ensure it is all safe and works. I will totally fill the large measuring with water and place it upside down in the ice cream tub, with the clamp stand holding it in place. The 5 grams of Calcium Carbonate will be placed in the conical flask with the thistle funnel on top. ...read more.

Middle

Another factor which may affect the rate of reaction is its temperature. Low Temperature High Temperature An increase in temperature will increase the rate of the reaction. This is because particles have more energy when they are heated causing them to move around more. This results in more collisions and more collisions between particles means a faster reaction. Preliminary Work For my preliminary work I will carry out an experiment using the same apparatus set up in the same way however I will investigate which sized chips produce the largest yield of Carbon Dioxide. I will use 5 grams of Calcium Carbonate and 20cm� of Hydrochloric Acid. Results Conclusion The graph shows that the smaller chips are the quickest to react and give of the most Carbon Dioxide. The graph is steep in the first 10 seconds because there are more reactants to collide with each other however later on they have turned in to products. For my actual experiment I am going to use medium sized chips because my preliminary work has allowed me to find out these are the most efficient. I chose medium chips because they should produce Carbon Dioxide at a good pace for me to be able to take readings easily, unlike small chips which have a massive surface area and react too quickly. Analysis When plotting my graphs, I decided to plot four different graphs - 1 for each type of acid used and 1 for the averages in each experiment. My graphs are plotted through the origin because I began timing my readings from zero so therefore my graphs must begin from zero. ...read more.

Conclusion

I would also make sure all my equipment was as new as possible and worked correctly. To improve my experiment further or find out if the rate of reaction did slow down I would carry out the experiment for longer than 2 minutes to see if a pattern emerges. What's more, I could repeat each volume to allow me to calculate an average which remove most of the errors and improve my experiment further. To back up my results I could carry out another experiment however this time investigating a different factor which affects the rate of reaction, such as temperature or using a catalyst to speed up the rate of reaction. To investigate temperature every other variable must be kept constant and only the temperature be altered. If I was to carry out this experiment I would use the apparatus I have used in this experiment, set up in the same way. To change the temperature I could place the conical flask in a warm water bath to increase it and ice bucket to decrease it. Readings would be taken of the amount of Caron Dioxide produced at different temperatures, such as 50�C, 60�C, 70�C and 80�C. The experiment should be repeated several times to ensure the results are accurate and averages can be calculated. If the experiment goes correctly as the temperature increases the rate of reaction should also increase because when particles are heated they have more energy causing them to move around more. This results in more collisions and increases the rate of reaction. ?? ?? ?? ?? Rosanna Sherrard 11G ...read more.

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