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Investigating the control of the cardiovascular system.

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Introduction

Assignment 4- Investigating the control of the cardiovascular system. For this assignment we were set the task of, monitoring our pulse rate and blood pressure of a chosen individual of our group at rest, during mild exercise and strenuous exercise. We took more than one reading for each task so we could calculate means. We used an electronic blood pressure machine which told us the pulse rate, the systolic and diastolic pressures of the blood. We also had a chance to monitor our heart rate with a stethoscope. For the exercise we did 2 minutes on an exercise bike for mild exercise and we did 5 minutes for our strenuous exercise. These were our results; Pulse rate Rest Mild exercise Strenuous exercise 1. 48 (BPM) 1. 94 (BPM) 1. 129 (BPM) 2. 79 (BPM) 2. 34 (BPM) 2. 57 (BPM) 3. 66 (BPM) average- 64 3. 70 (BPM) average- 66 3. 120 (BPM) average- 102 Blood pressure results (Highest number- systolic pressure and lowest number diastolic pressure) Rest Mild exercise Strenuous exercise 1. 94/65 1. 147/118 1. 144/79 2. 112/89 2. 111/89 2. 101/85 3. 99/69 average 101/74 3. 117/100 average 125/102 3. 157/95 average 134/86 Pulse rate can be measured from a range of pulse points all over the body but the wrist and neck is the most commonly used. ...read more.

Middle

Next it is the Ventricular systole which is when both ventricles contract forcing the blood through to the pulmonary artery to the lungs and through to the aorta to the rest of the body. This takes about 0.3 seconds. This contraction of the ventricles also pushes the blood against the atrioventricular valves causing them to close. The entrances of the aorta and pulmonary arteries contain Semi lunar valves which during ventricular systole there is increased pressure which causes the Semi lunar valves to open. Next it is the atrial diastole which is when the atria relax even though the ventricles are still contracted; the blood enters the atria from the large veins coming from the body. Lastly it is the Ventricular diastole which is when the ventricles relax and become ready to fill with blood from the atria as the next cycle begins. The heart beat is heard as a result of the arrest of moving blood when the valves close. The Cardiac impulse is the contractions of the heart muscle which is triggered off by electrical stimulus. The electrical impulse originates in a region of the right atrium called the sino-atrial (SA) node; the less technical word for this is the pacemaker. This electrical impulse spreads into the walls of the atria causing atrial systole (contractions) ...read more.

Conclusion

Johns ECG is defiantly different than this, he has up to three p waves before he has a QRS but this differs. The QRS is also not evenly spaced out and is not always followed by a t wave. Conditions that might cause this The reason why john's ECG was how it is might be the influence of a heart block. A heart block is when sometimes the signal from the upper part of the heart to the lower is impaired or doesn't transmit. A heart block doesn't mean that the blood flow is blocked or the blood vessels. Heart block can be classified into 3 categories according to the level of impairment there is first second and third degree heart block. I think that john is suffering from second degree heart block which is when some signals from the atria don't reach the ventricles. This causes dropped beats on an ECG, and the p wave isn't always followed by a QRS which is shown on johns ECG. This is caused because the ventricles were not activated properly. There are two types of second degree heart block in which I think that john has the type 1 as the electrical impulses are delayed resulting in on QRS and a repetition of p waves until a beat is dropped. This condition is not too serious but it can lead to needing a pacemaker and dizziness. ...read more.

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