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Investigating the Different Factors That Affect the Rate of Reaction Between Marble Chips and Dilute HydrochloricAcid.

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Introduction

INVESTIGATING THE DIFFERENT FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF REACTION BETWEEN MARBLE CHIPS AND DILUTE HYDROCHLORIC ACID!!! INTRODUCTION The aim of this investigation is to investigate the different factors that affect the rate of reaction between marble chips (calcium carbonate-CaCO3) and hydrochloric acid (HCL). Here is a word equation and a balanced symbol equation of this reaction, showing the reactants and the products. CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) Reactants Products Hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide FACTORS AFFECTING THE RATE OF REACTION Here is a list of the different factors that affect the rate of the reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips (calcium carbonate). The reaction will tell me how fast or how slow a chemical reaction is or in other words how quickly the reactants turn into products. There are five factors that could affect the reaction rate. They are:- 1. Temperature - if the temperature increases then the rate of the reaction will also increase. 2. Concentration- if the concentration of a reactant in solution increases (in this case we are talking about hydrochloric acid) then the rate of the reaction will also increase. 3. Pressure- if the pressure of a reacting gas increases ( in this case there is no reacting gas therefore this factor cannot be used) then the rate of the reaction will also increase. 4. Surface area- if the surface area of a solid reactant increases (in this case we are talking about the marble chips- calcium carbonate- CaCO3 ) then the rate of the reaction will also increase. 5. Catalyst- if a catalyst is used then the rate of the reaction will also increase. ...read more.

Middle

Diagram: 2. Temperature of HCl As the temperature increases, the rate of the reaction increases. This is because the particles gain kinetic energy and begin to move faster. As a result, the reacting particles collide more frequently and with greater energy. Therefore there are more successful collisions per second and the rate of the reaction increases. Increasing the temperature by 10�C will almost double the rate of the reaction. Diagram 3. Pressure When one more of the reactants is a gas, an increase in pressure will increase the rate of the reaction. This is because when the pressure is increased, the particles are forced closer together. Therefore when the pressure is increased, there are more particles per unit volume. Thus the frequency of collisions increases and the rate of the reaction increases. Diagram 4. Surface area of CaCO3 As the surface area of calcium carbonate increases, the rate of the reaction increases. This is because when one of the reactants is a solid, the reaction takes place on the surface of the solid. By breaking up the calcium carbonate (marble chips) into smaller pieces, the surface area increases and there is a greater surface available for collisions to take place. Thus, there are more collisions per second and the rate of the reaction increases. Diagram 5. Catalyst A catalyst is a substance which speeds up the rate of a reaction but remains chemically unchanged itself. A catalyst provides a new route for the reaction, which has a lower activation energy than the normal (uncataysed) reaction. Therefore, there are more successful collisions per second and the rate of the reaction increases. ...read more.

Conclusion

32 35 37 39 42 45 47 0 6 8 10 13 15 17 20 22 25 27 29 32 35 37 39 42 45 47 48 0 6 8 10 12 15 17 19 21 24 26 29 31 34 37 39 41 44 46 48 Experiment 5 0.88g marble chips ( CaCO3 ) 20cm� HCl (2.0 mol dm� �) and 20cm� of distilled water = 1.0 mol dm� � Time /s Volume of carbon dioxide / cm� Average volume of carbon dioxide / cm� 1 2 3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 0 5 7 8 9 11 12 13 15 17 19 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 0 4 5 6 8 9 10 12 13 15 16 18 19 20 21 23 25 26 27 28 0 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 13 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 29 0 4 6 7 8 10 11 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 25 26 28 29 31 From the results, 5 graphs of time were plotted against the volume of carbon dioxide, for the five different concentrations of dilute HCl.. The gradient t = 0 must be found. This is because the exact concentration of hydrochloric acid is known at zero time. Therefore, the gradient at t = 0 gives the initial rate. Thus, the effect of concentration on the reaction rate can be measured. The concentration of HCl decreases with time, therefore the rate of the reaction decreases with time. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Overall and goggles were worn to protect the eyes from the acid. ...read more.

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