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Investigating the effect of a concentration on the rate of reaction.

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Introduction

Investigating the effect of a concentration on the rate of reaction The rate of reaction tells us how quickly a chemical reaction happens. The rate is measured in time and can be useful to find out how much of the product is created in a certain amount of time, which can be useful in industry. The rate is measured from when the reactants are placed together, until they have finished reacting and created a product. Collision theory: chemical reactions only occur when reacting particles collide with each other with sufficient energy to react. (The essentials of AQA chemistry, Mary James) Activation energy: the energy needed to start a reaction Catalyst: a substance which speeds up a chemical reaction. At the end of the reaction, the catalyst is chemically unchanged. It lowers the activation energy. (Chemistry for You, Lawrie Ryan) Planning I have chosen to pursue and experiment to investigate the rates of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid. 2HCl + CaCO3 --> Ca(Cl2)+ H2O + CO2 Hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate --> calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide There are four factors which I considered; each of them will affect the rate of reaction: 1. Temperature I think that the temperature of a solution will affect the rate of reaction. If it is at a higher temperature, then the particles in the solution are applied with more energy from the heat and move around more quickly and cause more collisions. These collisions are the cause of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

It is important that I find more than one rate of reaction at each concentration so that I can be sure that it is not anomalous due to human error and so that I can be sure that the average rate of reaction I calculate from the readings is accurate. This is why I have chosen to have 3 results for each concentration. Method 1. I will make up 100ml of each concentration using the correct amount of hydrochloric acid and water. I will find this by calculating the percentages of each needed in the concentration. 2. I will label each of the stocks of solution. 3. I will use a pestle and mortar to grind up the marble chips (CaCO3) into powder 4. I will pour 25ml of a concentration into a boiling tube, I will have 3 lots of boiling tubes for each concentration, so I have 33 boiling tubes in total. 5. I will start with the 3 boiling tubes for 0.5 molar solution and add 1/4 spatula of powder to each 6. I will use a stop watch to time how long it takes to finish reacting from the moment I put the powder in the boiling tube 7. I will record my results in a table 8. I will repeat this for the rest if the concentrations 9. I will use my results to find the average for each concentration by multiplying each result by 60 to put them into seconds, then adding the 3 results for each concentration together and dividing by 3. ...read more.

Conclusion

I could have also put the experiment on a set of scales; this would show me the decrease in mass as the time went on, when the mass stopped decreasing the experiment would have finished. When comparing the 3 results at each concentration, I found that some were not as close to the same value as others. They show that the results were not reliable enough to base a firm conclusion; this means that although the average results fit the pattern, I still have to allow for the fact that the initial results could be quite inaccurate and this could have created a larger margin of error in my results. I found that most of the points lie quite far from the line of best fit, this shows me that the results are not that reliable. The graph does not look like the one I predicted, and due to scientific reasoning it should. I think if I was to repeat the experiment again I would do more tests for each concentration. Despite the inaccuracies, the trend of the line does support my prediction, so the rate of reaction is affected by the concentration. The results are reliable to show me the trend, but not to show if there is a quantitative trend. The graph I have only shows a small part of the big picture, so the results may not be as inaccurate as they seem to be. Further work I could do is to use a larger range of concentrations, this would enable me to get a clearer, more accurate understanding of the effect of the concentration, and it will hopefully enable me to determine the end point. ...read more.

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