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Investigating the effect of temperature on the rate of chemical reaction when an Alka-Seltzer tablet is dissolved in water and to estimate the temperature change needed to double the rate of reaction.

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Introduction

Investigating the effect of temperature on the rate of chemical reaction when an Alka-Seltzer tablet is dissolved in water and to estimate the temperature change needed to double the rate of reaction. Aim: I will carry out this investigation to find out the temperature change needed to double the rate of chemical reaction when an Alka-Seltzer tablet is dissolved in water. Plan:- ? Variables The list below is the factors of variables, which could affect my investigation. It is important in any experiment that these factors are controlled, so reliable, accurate and fair result to be obtained from the investigation. In my experiment, it will be essential for me to keep some of variables the same and under control, not only for a fair test but to obtain reliable results. * Mass of tablet - If the mass is greater in one of the tablets, there will be more molecules which can react with the water. This causes the rate of reaction to speed up. I will make sure I weigh each tablet using the top pan scales. I will make sure the weight of the tablets are roughly the same. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore, for a chemical reaction to occur, effective collisions must be occurring. These collisions have a sufficient energy. Every chemical reaction has a certain Activation Energy and to increase the rate of reaction you must increase the possibility of the reactant particles having that energy. One of the ways of doing it, is to increase the temperature. The higher the temperature, the greater the kinetic energy of the particles, therefore there will be more collisions with enough energy to make reaction happen. This is explained in the Maxwell-Boltzman distribution below: When the temperature is low, the particles do not have enough energy to pass the Activation Energy line. Only a few of them do. This means that only a few molecules have the required energy to react with other molecules. Therefore, the rate of reaction is slow. However, when the temperature is high, more molecules pass the Activation Energy line and react with the other molecules. This means the rate of reaction increases, as there are more collisions. The Maxwell-Boltzman distribution curve shows us the Activation Energy and how many molecules have the required energy to react. For T1, which is a lower temperature, it is clear that most of the molecules do not have the required energy to pass the Activation Energy line. ...read more.

Conclusion

Therefore, this should lead to the tablet dissolving in the water at a faster rate. Once the tablet has dissolved, the reaction can take place. The reaction is between the two distinct types of particles that the Alka-Seltzer tablets are made of. These are Sodium Bicarbonate particles and Citric Acid particles. When these collide with enough energy to break their bonds, they cause a reaction, which results in the production of carbon dioxide. It is this gas, which is collected in the gas syringe, and used to work out the rate of reaction. The temperature affects this reaction, by providing the particles with more or less energy. A larger amount of energy does two things, both which help to increase the rate of reaction. Firstly it means the particles can more about faster, so have more of a chance of multiple collisions. Secondly, it means the particles collide with enough force to break the bonds and cause the reaction. The equation for this reaction is; Sodium Bicarbonate + Citric Acid ~> Carbon Dioxide + Sodium Citrate + Water Other than temperature, the concentration of the solution also affects the speed of the reaction. The smaller the volume the faster the reaction as the particles is spaced out over a smaller area. This means that collisions will be more frequent than if the solution was much more concentrated. ...read more.

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