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Investigating the effect of the temperature of hydrochloric acid on its rate of reaction with marble

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

SC1 Investigation 16/10/06 Investigating the effect of the temperature of hydrochloric acid on its rate of reaction with marble. Christopher Lewis Candidate number: 2670 SC1 Investigation Investigating the effect of the temperature of hydrochloric acid on its rate of reaction with marble. 1. Planning 1) Investigating the effect of the temperature of hydrochloric acid on its rate of reaction with marble. 2) Background Information The chemical equation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble is: CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 This ionic equation for this reaction is: 2H+ + CO32- H2O + CO2 The word equation for the reaction is: Marble + hydrochloric acid = calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide I believe that the temperature of hydrochloric acid will have a significant effect the amount of carbon dioxide and water given off by this experiment, and therefore on the rate of reaction. Rate of reaction can be measured by the volume of carbon dioxide produced divided by the time taken to do so, thus: vol/time. Particles move all the time as a result of Brownian motion - random movement at any temperature above 0 K. The rate of reaction depends on a number of variables. This is in relation to particle kinetic theory, which states that if there is more heat, for example, there will be faster particle movement, and therefore more collisions between particles/unit of time. The chance of a collision causing a reaction is fixed, so if there are more collisions/unit of time, the number of successful (reaction-causing) collisions/unit of time will also increase. Particle kinetic theory relates to a number of other factors too, so I will have to ensure that all variables (except the temperature of hydrochloric acid, which will be investigated) remain constant for this experiment, in order to ensure a fair test. 3) Variables Table to show the possible variables in this experiment, and how to control them Variable Possible Effect How To Control Temperature To be investigated in this experiment. ...read more.

Middle

* Risk of melting something plastic in the lab, which could give off toxic and harmful fumes. * By always being careful whilst using Bunsen burners. * By wearing safety glasses while heating. * When Bunsen is not in use, switching to a yellow 'safety' flame. Water * Spillages could increase likelihood of an accident on a slippery surface. * Hot water presents a risk of scalding. * By always clearing up a spill immediately. * By always standing up while doing the experiment, and wearing a lab coat at all times. * By being sensible and careful at all times, and not engaging in any foolery. Glass * Glass could crack, leading to risk of cutting oneself, or having glass embedded in the flesh. * By avoiding applying unnecessary force, or wrongly directed force, to any glass object. * By making sure that glass objects are treated with care, and not dropped. Thermometer * Glass could break, releasing toxic mercury. * Do not expose thermometer to excessive direct heat (e.g. from the Bunsen burner). * Handle thermometers with due care and attention. 2. Obtaining Evidence 1) Modifications to method Originally, I had intended to measure results in terms of how long it took for a certain amount of carbon dioxide to be produced. I realised, however, that this would be less accurate. The bubbles took time to reach the top of the upturned burette, so it was very difficult to accurately know how much CO2 had been produced at any given point, as some bubbles were still moving up the tube. I therefore decided I would measure how much carbon dioxide was produced in a certain time When I first planned the experiment, I intended to have 3 solutions being tested simultaneously, with the intention of saving time. I could not do this, however, due to available equipment limitations. I also realised how difficult this would be, as everything became very crowded and the results would happen too quickly, so when I do the experiment proper I will only have one reaction being timed at any one point. ...read more.

Conclusion

This would have been more noticeable at the higher temperatures, as the rate of temperature loss from hotter items is more rapid. To correct this, an incubator or water bath would have been necessary. After seeing such a spread in values observed at each temperature, I believe that, were I to do this experiment again, it would be necessary to repeat the testing more than three times. I think that it would be more suitable to trial the experiment five times with each heat value in order to get a larger amount of data, therefore strengthening the basis to my conclusion and giving me more accurate averages. Due to time constraints, repeating the experiment more times would have been impossible for this investigation. 6) Improvements to the Method In order to improve my method, I could use a gas syringe to measure the amount of CO2 produced by the reaction. This would allow me to measure the gas given off more accurately, perhaps increasing the precision of any graphs. I could also use an incubator to obtain more reliable results - this would ensure that my samples stayed at the required temperature for the duration of the experiment, thus providing a more accurate set of data. 7) Extension Work In order to extend this practical, I could have used a larger range of results. I think that I could have used colder values, with the water going down to 5 �c and up to 95 �c. I also feel that I could have changed the temperature intervals from 10 �c to 5 �c in order to get more of a spread of results, and get a more accurate trend line. Furthermore, to investigate the reaction between marble and hydrochloric acid further, I could carry out a series of other related experiments. I believe that suitable research could include changing the following variables to examine their impact on the rate of reaction: * The concentration of HCl in the solution * The amount of HCl solution * The time given for each solution to react ?? ?? ?? ?? 13 ...read more.

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