• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Investigating the Efficiency of Fuels.

Extracts from this document...


Investigating the Efficiency of Fuels Introduction I am going to investigate the efficiency of two fuels. I will carry out an investigation which will allow me to see which fuel is more efficient. This is made easy because the fuels I am going to test each burn well through sprit burners. The fuels are reactive, and produce heat, therefore exothermic. You can tell this because when the fuels burn they produce heat, and when heat is produced from a reaction we call it an exothermic reaction. Energy level diagram showing an Exothermic Reaction: This shows an exothermic reaction because the products are at a lower energy level than the reactants. The difference in height represents the energy given out in the reaction. The EA is the activation energy, and this is the energy that is needed to break bonds. It is the initial rise in the energy given out in the reaction. On this energy level diagram, Delta H is negative. This is a table showing the energy required to make or break a covalent bond. Bond Energy kJ C - H 412 O = O 496 C = O 743 H - O 463 C - C 346 The bond energies are measured in kJ. Making for example, a C - H bond, releases 412 kJ of energy. This is an exothermic process, as energy is released and not required. ...read more.


At this point I will re-weigh hexane and record the new weight in order to calculate the weight loss and the efficiency. Once I have tested with hexane I will do the same for pentane, and weigh it before and after the test just like I did with hexane. Before I light the pentane spirit burner, I will cool the apparatus down and re-fill the copper tin with another 50ml of water, and wait till it settles at 20�C. This way I am keeping the starting temperature the same and therefore a fairer test. Safety Equipment The experiment I will be doing involves chemicals, fire and hot apparatus. Chemicals can damage the eyes, so I will wear safety goggles when handling and testing the two fuels, hexane and pentane. As there is fire involved in the experiment, I will use a heat mat so as not to burn and catch the experiment work surface on fire. I will also tuck my tie into my shirt, and clear the work area of bags etc. Lastly, whilst working around the hot apparatus, I will take care to avoid touching it, and make people around my work area aware that some of the apparatus is hot. Whilst moving the hot apparatus i.e. the copper tin, I will use re-tractable tongs. The Combustion of Pentane and Hexane The word equation for Pentane combusting Pentane (l) + Oxygen (g) Carbon Dioxide (g) + water (l) + Heat Energy The chemical equation for Pentane combusting C5H12 (l) ...read more.


When checking the temperature of the water I was boiling in each test, I used a thermometer which measured in �C to the nearest degree. The water I boiled separately with the two fuels started at 20�C and I stopped heating at 100�C. The 1 degree accurate thermometer I used meant there was only a 1 degree margin of error. This is very accurate, and means I managed to keep the test fair by only heating water from 20�C-100�C with both fuels. For both the tests (hexane and pentane) I heated 50ml of water. I used a good measuring cylinder which measured the volume of water to the nearest 1ml. Again, this is very accurate, and helped me get accurate results. Reliability I think my results are very reliable. I have bullet pointed a list of things I made sure I did in the experiment to make sure my results are as reliable as I can make them. * I blew out the flame of each spirit burner at the correct moment * I used exactly the same amount of water for each test * I trimmed each spirit burners wick so a 2cm flame would burn from each. This keeps the experiment fair * I used a wind shield to act as a draught exclusion for each test. This again ensured a fair test for each fuel * I knew that if I left a spirit burner burning for longer than it should be (still burning after water has reached 100�C) it will weigh less than it should Tom Sharp - Chemistry investigation - 11G ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Organic Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    What an ester is, how it is made, examples of esters, animal testing issues ...

    4 star(s)

    1.No 2.No 3. No 4. Sometimes 5.No 6.No 7.No 8.Yes 9.No 10.Sometimes Do you get persuaded to buy a cosmetic product because of good advertisement? 1.yes 2.yes 3.yes 4.sometimes 5.yes 6.not sure 7.yes 8.yes 9. yes 10.sometimes Would you still buy the cosmetics you own if you knew they were animal tested?

  2. Peer reviewed

    Burning Fuels Coursework

    4 star(s)

    The table of results shows that Butan-1-ol required the least fuel. This goes against the prediction that pentan-1-ol would require the least fuel to heat the water, and propan-1-ol requiring the second smallest. The reason why Pentan-1-ol may have used more fuel may be down to incomplete combustion between the fuel and oxygen.

  1. Hydrocarbons As Fuels.

    and cracking ( to produce more gasoline and alkanes ). There is insufficient gasoline and naphtha fractions from the primary distillation to satisfy the demand for petrol. So higher boiling fractions are cracked to produce more gasoline and naphtha. Modern petrol engines require higher proportions of branched-chain alkanes, cycloalkanes and arenes to promote efficient combustion.

  2. Comparing fuels

    It was a different room with wind coming from different directions and the water temperature was different at the start this may have made it harder for the water to heat up as quickly as the ethanol and methanol. The ethanol and methanol both started at 26?C and the butanol and 20?C.

  1. The Energy Content Of Different Fuels

    = 1.9 g 3. Molar mass of CH3OH = 32 No. of moles = mass Molar mass No. of moles = 1.9 / 32 = 0.059375 moles of fuel used 4. Energy used & produced to = mass of water X S.H.C X Temp rise heat the water Energy = 25 X 4.2 X 70 = 7350 joules 5.

  2. Burning Fuels Investigation.

    The results did not fit any pattern and did not come out as expected as in my prediction due to my research that I did. My graph goes up and down, which it should not do, its should go in a straight line up.

  1. Energy Transfer in Fuels

    As the tip of the flame may be of a different temperature to the base of the flame for instance, it is important that we keep the tip of the flame touching the base of the metal can. As different Paraffin Burners may have different size wicks, therefore different length

  2. GCSE Chemistry Revision Notes - everything!

    + OH- (aq) ? NH3 (g) + H2O (l) Carbonates Most carbonates split up to give a metal oxide and carbon dioxide when you heat them. You can test the carbon dioxide given off using limewater and there may be some helpful colour changes as well. If you add a dilute acid to a solid carbonate, carbon dioxide is produced in the cold.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work