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Investigating the factors affecting the Rate of Reaction.

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Introduction

Investigating the factors affecting the Rate of Reaction Introduction Different chemical reactions go at different speeds. Some, such as explosions, are very, very fast. Others, such as the rusting of iron, are much slower. There are many factors, which affect the rate of reaction. Some examples of these are temperature, surface area, concentration, catalysts, light, and pressure. These factors all affect the number of collisions per unit time. If there are more collisions, then there are more reactions per unit time. Prediction Preliminary work For my preliminary work, I performed one experiment and I used a computer simulation. Firstly, I performed an experiment with sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. Firstly, six concentrations of sodium thiosulphate were made up, which contained 30cm3, 25cm3, 20cm3, 15cm3, 10cm3 and 5cm3 of sodium thiosulphate. To each of the concentrations, water was added to make the concentration add up to 30cm3. The sodium thiosulphate was then put into a conical flask. Underneath it, was a piece of card with a cross on it. The time taken for the cross to be seen was measured. This was then repeated for the other concentrations. ...read more.

Middle

Mass of CaCO3 Control The mass of CaCO3 will be kept at 0.50g, as an increase in mass will increase the time for all of it to react. Use of distilled water Control Distilled water will be used as tap water may contain something that will affect the rate of reaction. Pressure Control The pressure increases the rate of reaction, as the particles move faster, and this will increase the number of collisions per unit time. Therefore there are more reactions per unit time. Use of catalyst Control A catalyst won't be used, as it will speed up the rate of reaction by providing an alternative route to the reaction with a lower activation energy barrier. Surface area Control The larger the surface area, the more collisions per unit time. As there is a larger surface area of CaCO3 for the HCl to collide with, therefore a faster rate of reaction. Therefore, a powder will be used, because the surface area is the same. Safety Throughout the whole experiment, safety goggles will be worn, as hydrochloric acid is harmful if someone gets it in their eyes. Also, any liquid spilt will be cleaned up straight away. ...read more.

Conclusion

The correlation coefficient of the results was 0.993, which is very close to 1. The closer the value is to 1, the better the values lie on the line of best fit. If the value is larger than 0.95, then the results are good, so my results are actually very good. I believe that my results justify both of the predictions. This is because the graph clearly shows that as the concentration increases, so does the rate of reaction. Also, the results show doubling, because the values 2.075, 2.096 and 2.057 are all close to 2. To improve the accuracy of the experiment even more, more accurate stopwatches could be used and more accurate measuring cylinders would be used. Also, a shaking machine could be used to swirl the conical flask at the start of the reaction. An alternative experiment would be to use all the same chemicals, but instead of measuring the time taken for the reaction, the amount of gas produced (carbon dioxide) would be measured, using the same equipment, but a gas syringe would be put over the conical flask and the amount of gas produced would be measured. Also, the mass lost in gas could be measured using a top pan balance. The experiment would be performed and the mass before and after the experiment would be measured. ...read more.

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