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Investigating the Factors Affecting the Temperature Change Between Zinc and Copper Sulphate

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Introduction

Investigating the Factors Affecting the Temperature Change Between Zinc and Copper Sulphate Introduction When zinc is added to copper sulphate solution, zinc sulphate and copper are formed. This is shown in the equations below: Zinc + copper sulphate ? zinc sulphate + copper Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) ? ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s) Grey Blue Colourless Red Metal Solution Solution Solid This can be described as a 'redox reaction' - a reaction which occurs when both oxidation and reduction occur together. Oxidation is described as the gain of oxygen, the loss of hydrogen or the loss of electrons. Reduction is the opposite of this - the loss of oxygen, the gain of hydrogen or the gain of electrons. In the case of zinc reacting with copper sulphate solution, however, it is only the electrons that are transferred: Cu+2SO4-2(aq) + Zn0(s) ? Zn+2SO4-2(aq) + Cu0(s) ZnO - 2e- ? Zn+2(aq) Oxidation Cu+2(aq) + 2e- ? Cu0(s) Reduction Cu+2(aq) + Zn(s) ? Zn+2(aq) + Cu(s) Redox Reaction Reduction Cu+2(aq) + Zn(s) ? Zn+2(aq) + Cu(s) Oxidation Zn has been oxidised because it has lost two electrons and Cu+2 has been reduced because it has gained two electrons. The oxidising agent brings about oxidation and in the process, it is reduced. In this reaction, Cu+2 is the oxidising agent because it causes the Zn to be oxidised and is reduced to Cu in the process. Similarly, the reducing agent brings about reduction and is oxidised in the process. Here Zn is the reducing agent because it causes the Cu+2 to gain two electrons and so, become reduced and it was oxidised to Zn+2 in the process. As well as a redox reaction, this chemical change can also be described as a displacement reaction. This occurs when one metal will displace another metal that is lower than it in the reactivity series of metals, as shown below: Potassium K Sodium Na Calcium Ca Magnesium Mg Aluminium Al The most reactive metals are found Zinc Zn Reactivity at the top of the series, i.e. ...read more.

Middle

Fair Test In order to ensure that there will be a fair test, it is necessary to keep some aspects of the experiment constant. The same size and material of the container holding the solution should be used, i.e. 7 identical polystyrene cups. The same volume and concentration of copper sulphate solution should be used and zinc powder should be used throughout the experiment. When the temperature of the zinc sulphate solution is taken, I will expect some copper to form at the end of the thermometer. In order to receive an accurate reading as possible, I should remove this as best I can. I will also be repeating the whole experiment again so my results can be as reliable as possible. Method 1) Collect all the apparatus required for the experiment, that is, 7 polystyrene cups and 1 lid, 7 small beakers, a pipette, electronic weighing scales and an electronic thermometer. 2) Measure 40cm3 of copper sulphate solution into each of the 7 polystyrene cups using the pipette. Measure and record the temperature of the solution. 3) Weigh out the range of masses of zinc powder selected using the electronic weighing scales, e.g. 0.5g; 0.7g; 0.9g; 1.1g; 1.3g; 1.5g and 1.7g. First weigh the beaker used to hold the zinc and add the mass of zinc required on to this weight. For example, if the beaker weighed 50.4g and 0.5g of zinc is required, then enough zinc should be added until the weight reaches 50.9g. 4) Add the 0.5g of zinc powder, to the first cup of copper sulphate solution and put on the lid. Place the sensor of the thermometer into the cup and stir so the zinc powder will dissolve faster. Record the highest temperature that the solution reaches. 5) Be sure to remove any copper that has formed on the tip of the sensor, as this may be the cause of any results being inaccurate. ...read more.

Conclusion

From these figures I calculated that the average temperature change for 1.3g of zinc was 10.6�C. "If it takes 4.2J to raise the temperature of water by 1�C, how much heat energy was required to raise the temperature of the reaction mixture to the new temperature?" Assuming 1g = 1cm� and so 40g is = 40cm�, the equation to calculate the heat energy is: Heat Energy = Mass of water x Joules x Temperature change = Mass of CuSO4 x 4.2 (J) x 10.6 (�C) = 40 cm� of CuSO4 x 44.52 = 1780.8 J This means that the amount of heat energy that is given out when 1.3g of zinc is used is 1780.8 joules. "Calculate the heat change of the reaction per mole of zinc." 1 mole of zinc = 65g No. of moles = Mass RAM = 1.3 65 = 0.02 moles of zinc 0.02 moles of zinc = 1780.8 J x 50 x 50 1 mole of zinc = 89 040 J/Mole Evaluation Throughout the experiment, there was always zinc left in the bottom of the beakers and some remained undissolved in the bottom of the polystyrene cup. This made the results inaccurate because not all of the zinc was used each time. A layer of oxide may also have formed on the zinc I was using. This extra oxide would make the zinc powder heavier, so the exact amount would not have been weighed out, 1g may have been used instead of 1.3g for example. I also found it a little difficult to measure the copper sulphate solution accurately with the pipette. I would improve the experiment by measuring the zinc powder onto some paper, instead of in a beaker. The chance of calculating a mistake would be reduced and there would be no possibility of any significant amount of zinc remaining on the paper, as it did in the beaker. Investigating the Factors Affecting the Temperature Change Between Zinc and Copper Sulphate. Nicola Donnelly 12D Miss Donnelly 15 1 ...read more.

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