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Investigating the factors that affect the rate of a reaction.

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Introduction

Nicola Wright 10C Investigating the factors that affect the rate of a reaction. Aim: To investigate what factors affects the rate of reaction. Introduction: All chemical reactions involve reactants, which may, when mixed, form products. In a trial experiment I looked at a basic reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon, and observed that the magnesium ribbon, fizzed, before finally dissolving. When we use that equation: Mg + 2HCl - MgCl + H We can see that the products of the reactants magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid are magnesium chloride and hydrogen. This happens because, as magnesium is higher in the reactivity series than hydrogen, it displaces the hydrogen in the hydrochloric acid. The rate of reaction is the speed at which reactants are converted to products for a particular reaction. This table shows all the factors that could affect the rate of reaction: What affects the rate of reaction? How does it affect it? Why does it affect it? Change or not? Temperature An increase in temperature would increase the rate of reaction. When you increase the temperature, the particles vibrate faster and collide more often. This means that there are more successful collisions and the rate of reaction is increased. No Catalyst Introducing a catalyst increases the rate of reaction. A catalyst finds an alternate route for the reaction with a lower activation energy level. No Surface area Increasing the surface area increases the reaction rate, and likewise decreasing the surface area decreases reaction rate. ...read more.

Middle

This is because there will be half as many particles, and therefore less successful collisions. This will decrease the collision frequency and therefore the rate of reaction. I have also based my prediction on preliminary work involving changing the concentration. In this experiment I looked at the reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and hydrochloric acid. When they reacted they form a sulphur precipitate, which turns the solution cloudy. We therefore placed a cross beneath the flask and timed how long it took for the cross to disappear, and repeated the experiment using different concentrations of sodium thiosulphate solution: The results were as follows: Volume of sodium thiosulphate solution (cm ) Volume of water (cm) Time taken for cross to disappear (s) Concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution (g/dm ) Rate of reaction 50 0 39 40 0.0257 40 10 49 32 0.0204 30 20 57 24 0.0175 20 30 105 16 0.0094 10 40 266 8 0.0038 These results back-up my hypothesis because, as shown, as the concentration increases so does the rate of reaction. As these results are reliable, having used accurate equipment and showing a clear pattern with no anomalous results, I think it is reasonable to say that my experiment will have similar results. Plan: I intend to react a chosen length of magnesium ribbon with a chosen concentration of hydrochloric acid. I will measure the rate of reaction by timing how it takes the magnesium ribbon to dissolve in the hydrochloric acid. ...read more.

Conclusion

These are all factors that I must keep the same in order to ensure that I have a fair test: i) Starting temperature of the acid- as temperature effects the rate of reaction it would not be fair if some tests had a higher starting temperature than others, as this would mean that the results would be affected and unreliable. Therefore I must measure the starting temperature of the acid solution before each test, to make sure that they are the same. ii) Volume of acid solution- the volume of the acid solution must remain at 50 cm for example: 50cm HCL to 0cm water or 30cm HCl to 20cm water otherwise there may not be as many particles in total, which would change the reaction rate, but not because of the concentration. This would make my results unreliable. iii) Surface area and length of magnesium- the length must remain the same i.e.) at 2cm because otherwise the rate of reaction would be affected and my results unreliable. iv) Clean magnesium- otherwise not all magnesium would be exposed to acid solution, and this would effect the rate of reaction, as the surface area of magnesium exposed would be different, and my results unreliable. v) Stir the acid solution- so water and acid particles mixed up i.e.) not all one area, and the magnesium particles areable to collide fairly. Results: Volume of hydrochloric acid (cm ) Volume of water (cm ) Time taken for magnesium to dissolve (s) Concentration of hydrocholric acid (g/dm ) Rate of reaction ...read more.

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