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Investigating the factors that affect the rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Acid

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Introduction

Laura Skevington Investigating the factors that affect the rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Acid Aim The aim of my experiment is to see how, and if changing the mass of the Calcium Carbonate affects the rate that Carbon dioxide gas is given off when Hydrochloric Acid is added. Prediction I think that if we increase the mass of the Calcium Carbonate the rate of reaction will speed up. There is greater mass and more surface area so collision between Calcium Carbonate particles and Hydrochloric acid particles is a lot more likely to happen and at a faster rate so more Carbon Dioxide gas will be produced. Scientific Theory behind my prediction - The Collision Theory Picture 1 Picture 2 The Collision Theory can be explained in terms of increasing the number of Collisions between atoms every second. In picture 1 there are 4 atoms of Calcium Carbonate and 10 atoms of hydrochloric acid. The atoms collide with each other and give off Carbon Dioxide gas. The amount of Calcium Carbonate is increased to 8 atoms (Picture 2) and the amount of Hydrochloric acid stays the same. As there are more atoms of Calcium Carbonate so there are more atoms for the Hydrochloric Acid to collide with, this makes collision between atoms more frequent and as a result of this more Carbon Dioxide gas will be given off at the end of my experiment. ...read more.

Middle

4. Report any glass breakage. 5. Don't run when carrying equipment. 6. Wipe any acid off skin IMMEDIATLEY! Method 1. I am going to add 0.25 grams of Calcium Carbonate powder to a conical flask. 2. I am then going to add 50ml of Hydrochloric acid. 3. I will then measure the amount of gas given off after 1 minute. 4. I will then repeat the experiment with different amounts of Calcium carbonate powder. 5. I am then going to repeat steps 1 - 4 twice to make sure my results are accurate and I am going to use the two sets of results to collect the average result. Measuring and Recording I am going to record the amount of Carbon Dioxide gas given off at the end of the experiment. I am going to do the experiment twice to collect an average. I will then plot a graph using the average of the two sets of results from the experiment. I will also be measuring; * The mass of Calcium Carbonate powder for each stage of the experiment. * The amount of Hydrochloric acid used in each experiment (50ml) * The amount of gas collected in 1 mins (time) ...read more.

Conclusion

I could also have used a measuring cylinder with a smaller scale to make sure the amount of Hydrochloric Acid was accurate. I think I collected a sufficient amount of results to draw an accurate and definite conclusion at the end of experiment as I did the experiment twice to ensure I had enough results and that it backed up my conclusion accurately. I can tell from my graph that a couple of my results were anomalous, and it could be for the following reasons; * The amount of Acid or Calcium Carbonate could have been measured inaccurately. * There could have been some contamination if the Conical Flask wasn't rinsed out properly from the last part of the experiment. * Some of the gas could have escaped. * The apparatus wasn't set up properly (e.g. The measuring tube had gas in because it wasn't completely filled with water or water was spilled out of it). There are several more experiments that could be done to find out the best way to speed up a chemical reaction such as; * Heat up the Acid to a variety of different temperatures before adding the Calcium Carbonate. * Use different sized pieces of Calcium Carbonate to put it in the acid. * Use a variety of Acid Strengths to pour onto the Calcium Carbonate. * Measure the amount of gas given off over a certain amount of time. ...read more.

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