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Investigating the factors that affect the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate

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Introduction

Investigating the factors that affect the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate * Calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid --> calcium + water + carbon dioxide * CaCO3 + 2HCl --> CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 * Factors affecting the reaction rate: > Surface area > Temperature Taken from Chemistry For You > Catalysts by Lawrie Ryan > Concentration I am going to investigate the factor of concentration in the hydrochloric acid. This is an easily controllable factor, which should hopefully give me a reliable set of results and prove my prediction. My Prediction I predict that the higher the concentration is the faster the reaction will occur. This is because there are more particles in an acid of higher concentration, and of the same volume, which will cause the calcium carbonate to collide more frequently with the acid particles. The collision theory taken from Chemistry For You by Lawrie Ryan 'When chemical reactions take place particles must collide with each other, this is called 'The Collision Theory'. The more collisions there are in a certain time, the faster the reaction.' Drawing taken from Chemistry For You by Lawrie Ryan In this diagram there are twice as many particles in the 2M solution of hydrochloric acid as there are in the 1M solution, however the volume of liquid is exactly the same. ...read more.

Middle

I will take the readings of the amount of carbon dioxide collected every ten seconds for a minute. I will then take the average from the results. Once I have repeated this 5 times I will start to dilute the acid. I will take 2ml of acid away each time and replace it with distilled water. I will keep doing this until I have 5ml of acid and 10ml of water. For each one I will have 5 readings to maintain reliability. Preliminary Work Whilst carrying out my preliminary work I discovered that there are so many different ways to investigate the concentration factor. After using an acid of 0.2M, 0.5M, 1M and finally 2M. I did not think that the results that I was getting with these particular strengths were working well enough. They either made the reaction happen too quickly or too slowly. This was still the case when I tried all different types of calcium carbonate, from the powder to the large sized pieces. I decided to make my own 1.5M strength acid. I found out that if I used 50ml of 2M acid and 50ml of 1M acid I would have an equal quantity of acid that was 1.5M in strength. ...read more.

Conclusion

I had no anomalous results in any of my lines on the graph and the shapes of the line show a strong positive correlation. This once again proves that my prediction was correct in saying that the higher the concentration, the faster the reaction and the more carbon dioxide is given off. A possible improvement that I could make to increase the reliability of my results would be to ensure that the calcium carbonate had exactly the same surface area every time. It would also make my results more accurate because due to the surface area being larger the number of particles will increase making there a greater chance of the particles colliding. The results on my graph proved to be in a line of correlation because of the near accuracy. From the results collected and the fact that I repeated each concentration five times the results acquired to be reasonably reliable hence it is possible to draw a valid conclusion. I would repeat the method and have a control. I would do it once through with acid and once through with water. This would prove that it was the acid producing the carbon dioxide and not the water. ?? ?? ?? ?? Liz Shoffren 10TN Chemistry Investigation June 2002 ...read more.

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