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Investigating the factors that affect the rate of reaction.

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework 2003 Investigating the Factors that Affect the Rate of Reaction By Chantelle Wright 11S I, Chantelle Wright, declare that the work I have completed for assessment has been produced without external assistance (apart from that which is acceptable under the scheme of assessment) PLANING Before actually planning the experiment, I will do some research to find out about the rates of reactions, and matters related to it, so that I can make predictions. And figure out a way to make this investigation fair and safe. Planning ahead would help me find out how to do what and when, which should lead me to good results at the end of the experiment. Aim My aim is to investigate the factors that affect the rate of reaction. I will be seeing how the concentration of the hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction with magnesium ribbon. I have a limit of 30m of magnesium ribbon and 600cm3 of acid that can be used in my experiment. Background Knowledge The Collision Theory: A chemical reaction can only occur between particles when they collide (hit each other). Particles may be atoms, ions or molecules. There is a minimum amount of energy which colliding particles need in order to react with each other. If the colliding particles have less than this minimum energy, then they just bounce off each other and no reaction occurs. ...read more.

Middle

Also small things such as a dirty conical flask, and a slightly cracked measuring cylinder could still affect the results, and therefore we will take these into account as well. If all of the precautions are done correctly then the experiment will be fair and so the results will be accurate and so we can get precise conclusions. Hypothesis From looking at my preliminary results and graph, and using background knowledge, I predict that the larger the concentration (i.e. the less water added) the quicker the rate of reaction will be (i.e. more C0? will be collected faster). This is because increasing the concentration of a substance in solution means that there will be more particles per dm3 of that substance. The more particles that there are, the more will collide per second, and so the rate of the reaction increases. This means more gas will be given off quicker into the gas syringe. This is an exothermic reaction. When there is only distilled water in the beaker, I think that there will be to no reaction-taking place with the magnesium ribbon, as water does not react with it. However, when there is no water in the solution and only hydrochloric acid. I think that the reaction will be very fast and the magnesium ribbon will dissolve within seconds. Apparatus - 600cm3 of hydrochloric acid - 30cms of magnesium ribbon - Scissors- to cut the magnesium ribbon - Ruler- to measure the magnesium ribbon ...read more.

Conclusion

I think that my results have been fairly accurate due to my careful precautions I took, to make sure that a fair test took place. However, on the colder day when the room temperature was 4 degrees colder, from looking at my graph, I can see that the rate of reaction was slightly slower. This is because when it is colder the particles move slower which decreases the number of collisions and therefore slow down the rate of reaction. To improve this, in future experiments I could control the room temperature by using controlled heaters. However from looking at my individual graph I can see that there are no obvious anomalous results. The graphs and the results show that: * Factors affect the rate of reaction. * The larger the concentration or hydrochloric acid, the quicker the rate of reaction will be * That temperature affects the rate of reaction Evaluation I followed the plan correctly; I believe I gained accurate and sufficient enough results to conclude the experiment, and to prove my hypothesis. My final results were fairly reliable, due to the precautions I took to make this a fair test. Changes to plan * I did not use a burette to measure out my solutions as it took too much time. Instead I used a measuring cylinder and measured to the nearest cm3. * Also where Carbon Dioxide was said to be the gas given off, it is actually hydrogen ...read more.

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