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Investigating the Factors that Affect the Temperature Change During a Neutralisation Reaction.

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Introduction

Investigating the Factors that Affect the Temperature Change During a Neutralisation Reaction Aim The aim of this experiment is to find out how much the temperature of the acid/alkali solution will change during the reaction of the two using different concentrations of the hydrochloric acid. Safety For this experiment goggles must be worn at all times. Hair must be tied back and loose clothing must be tucked in. Hydrochloric acid at this concentration of 2M is very corrosive which means; this substance destroys living tissues including eyes and skin. Sodium Hydroxide at this concentration of 1M is corrosive which means; this substance destroys living tissues including eyes and skin. Prediction I predict that the temperature will change, as heat will be given of consequently making it an exothermic reaction of the acid and alkali. The concentration of the acid will have an effect on the alkali as if you use a more concentrated acid it will give you a higher temperature than a less concentrated one. As you increase the concentration of the acid there are more particles in the solution so more collisions will be occurring creating a higher temperature. ...read more.

Middle

Measure the temperature and record. Repeat this method three times for each different concentration. I will record the data in a table like this: ? M of HCl 1st Reading 2nd Reading 3rd Reading Av. Reading Start Temperature (O C) Finish Temperature (O C) Amount of alkali needed to neutralise (cm3) Results 2M of HCl 1st Reading 2nd Reading 3rd Reading Av. Reading Start Temperature (O C) 22.5 21 22 21.83 Finish Temperature (O C) 29 29.5 30 29.5 Amount of alkali needed to neutralise (cm3) 8 6 6 6.6 1.5M of HCl 1st Reading 2nd Reading 3rd Reading Av. Reading Start Temperature (O C) 21 21 21 21 Finish Temperature (O C) 28 28.5 28 28.2 Amount of alkali needed to neutralise (cm3) 6 6 6.5 6.2 1M of HCl 1st Reading 2nd Reading 3rd Reading Av. Reading Start Temperature (O C) 21 20 21 20.6 Finish Temperature (O C) 29 30 30 29.6 Amount of alkali needed to neutralise (cm3) 5 6 5 5.3 0.5M of HCl 1st Reading 2nd Reading 3rd Reading Av. Reading Start Temperature (O C) 22 20 20 20.6 Finish Temperature (O C) ...read more.

Conclusion

I feel that to increase the chance of improving the results in future experiments, then I should take more readings so I can leave the anomalous results out, to increase the chance of gaining a more successful set of results and averages. There are a few reasons why the results didn't go to plan: ? Lack of care when measuring, maybe a smaller measuring cylinder would reduce the possible chance of a human error. ? The alkali and water may not have been mixed properly. If the experiment were to be repeated then there would be a few changes to be made in order for the results to be more accurate: ? Using more concentrations to give a better range. ? Take more care when cutting the potato pieces. ? To use a more precise pipette (as the one used was only a grade 'B' standard) to measure correct amount of acid, alkali and water. To extend the experiment to see if different variables work you could try using other acids or alkalis, also you could try using different volumes instead of concentrations. This would provide additional evidence for the conclusion and also show how you could extend the experiment. Chemistry Coursework 1 Page ...read more.

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