• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Investigating the factors which affect the loss of energy from Alcohols.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigating the factors which affect the loss of energy from Alcohols Aim + Planning: My aim for this experiment is to see the energy produced of different alcohols. I will use a number of different alcohols and try to see which ones give off the most heat and energy. An alcohol is a series of organic and homologous compounds and are just alkanes or alkenes. Alcohols burn in the air to form water and carbon dioxide. The reaction of burning the alcohols is exothermic. This is because heat is given out meaning that the reactants energy is higher than that of what is produced. The energy is given out when forming the bonds between the new water and carbon dioxide molecules. The amount energy given out from an exothermic reaction can be calculated by using the following formula: Mass of substance x rise in temperature x specific heat capacity The specific heat capacity (SHC) is the number of joules it takes to heat up one gram of water by 1�C. I have chosen to use water because it is reliable with a SHC of 4.2, there is plenty of it to use and is also safe to use. The bonds that are formed in an exothermic reaction can be of two types. The first could be ionic, where a metal is produced. Ionic bonding involves electrons transferring from one atom to the other consequently leaving an electrostatic force between them. The other form of bonding is covalent where atoms share electrons to complete their outer orbit. ...read more.

Middle

Finally, it is extremely important that I am sensible through out the whole of the experiment and follow these safety measure correctly and fully so that an accident doesn't occur. Method - I plan to carry out the experiment by using all the safety and fairness issues stated above to give the most accurate and reliable results for each of the alcohols I use. I am going to record the mass of the alcohol and its sprit lamp before and after the after the experiment so I can compare alcohols. I will then set up the experiment as shown in the diagram. The tin container will hold 150ml of water, which will be recorded for its temperature soon before the experiment begins. I will then light the sprit lamp with a wooden splint and then check to see that the flame from the sprit lamp is in contact with the sprit lamp. Once the sprit lamp is lit, I will then start the timer. I will leave the experiment for three minutes. I will then remove the water container from above the sprit lamp, with the glass cap being placed on top of it immediately, and record the temperature of the water once it is stirred. I will then weigh the sprit lamp without the glass cap and record the change in its weight. This procedure will be repeated at least three times for each of my alcohols to ensure that I obtain reliable and accurate results. ...read more.

Conclusion

Based on what I had predicted, the Hexanol alcohol should have produced more heat energy than the Pentanol alcohol. There are many possible reasons as to why the Pentanol alcohol mite not have worked and have produced it anomalous results. It mite have been because the flame was not in contact with the water container, and therefore making the alcohol produce less heat to the water in the container. If the flame was too small, it would have given a low temperature reading to the 150ml of water. The procedure of the experiment was enough for finding out the energy gained from the individual alcohols, but changes could have been made to make the reliability of the results more accurate. Using better and more affective equipment, like an electric thermometer could have done this. Electric thermometers can give readings to two decimal places. I if I were to repeat the investigation, there would be a number of changes and improvements that I would make to the experiment. We could have extended the investigation slightly and used different flame sizes, this would have told us how much the alcohol uses its energy when the flame is increased in its length. I could have also changed the amount of water in the containers, or possibly even use different materials for the containers used, to vary the heat conduction present. Another thing that I could have done, would have been to change the time I was burning the alcohol for, and then check the temperature percentage increase of the water in the container at certain intervals of about a minute. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Organic Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Organic Chemistry essays

  1. How Does The Increase In The Length Of The Carbon Chain Affect The Energy ...

    So there is a +- 0.5�C possibility of anomalous results. The experiments will be repeated three times each to lessen the chance of an anomalous result. The mean amount will then be calculated and used to plot a graph.

  2. Combustion of Alcohols

    * Incomplete combustion occurred. This can be detected by the carbon soot forming on the underside of the calorimeter. Practical Work In the following three tests I conducted, the fuel I used was ethanol and I calculated the heat produced by using the equation on the first page.

  1. Comparing the enthalpy changes of combustion of different alcohols.

    -641 KJ mol-1 -2675 KJ mol-1 +2034 KJ mol-1 Butan-2-ol -769 KJ mol-1 -2660 KJ mol-1 +1891 KJ mol-1 Pentan-1-ol -770 KJ mol-1 -3323 KJ mol-1 +2553 KJ mol-1 If we study the enthalpy change of combustion from the values in the data book we can indeed see that as

  2. An experiment to investigate the factors that determine the amount of energy released when ...

    Methanol - CH3OH (1x12) + (3x1) + 16 + 1 r.m.m = 32 4) Finding out the weight for each type of alcohol relative to 1cm3 e.g. Methanol - 0.791 grams 5) Working out how many moles the alcohol contains e.g. Methanol - 0.791g 32 r.m.m = 0.025 moles Now that I know the amount of

  1. Combustion of Alcohols Investigation.

    Different readings from the same alcohol would vary erratically, and we decided that this was due to heat loss to the air and only partial contact of the wick with the beaker at times. The reason for this was that the flame was easily blown and changed direction from movements such as people walking past etc.

  2. Molar Heat of Combustion of Alcohols

    3 640 kJ Test 3 554 kJ Test3 1581 kJ 1736 kJ 2179 kJ 4726 kJ From this table we can see that the best performing container was in fact the Beaker. The Copper Calorimeter came second and the Test-Tube did not perform nearly as well as either of these.

  1. Investigate the different amounts of energy given off when different alcohols are combusted. I ...

    I believe this is due to the way that the alcohols bond. They are a chain of carbons with a 0-H bond on the end. 1 Methanol (CH3OH) 2 Ethanol (C2H5OH) 3 Propanol (C3H7OH) 4 Butanol (C4H9OH) 5 Pentanol (C5H11OH)

  2. GCSE Chemistry Revision Notes - everything!

    Many elements form compounds with sulphur. These are called sulphides. Many of the most important metal ores are sulphides, such as galena and lead sulphide. Sulphur exists in 3 main forms (2 crystalline forms and one plastic form). Rhombic sulphur is the form of sulphur that is stable at room temperature.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work