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Investigating the factors which affect the rate of reaction between (CaCO) and HCl

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Introduction

Investigating the factors which affect the rate of reaction between (CaCO3) and HCl Introduction In this course work I predict that the higher the concentration, the faster the rate of reaction, due to the collision theory which states for a chemical reaction to occur, particles must collide with each other in the correct way and also have enough energy for the collision to be successful' METHOD: I shall then begin to take measurements every 30 seconds after I have added the marble chips to the acid and measured how far the gas syringe has moved. By doing this I will know how much gas has been produced from the reaction, because when it is produced it goes through and the gas syringe moves backwards. Various factors affect reactions. If you increase the surface area of a solid, the rate of reaction will increase Temperature: When the temperature of the acid is increased, more energy is produced as the molecules collide a lot more. Then more they collide, the more likely they are to combine. When the temperature is dropped the molecules do not collide as much as the molecules are moving slowly. Therefore, the higher the temperature, the quicker the rate of reaction. Concentration In a reaction , if there is more of a substance then the probability of the molecules of colliding is a lot higher and therefore will speed up the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

Small 0.5 m 1.58 too slow Small 0.75 m 34.6 Small 1.0 m 32.03 Small 1.75 m 16.07 Small 1.5 m 24.68 Small 2.0 m 10.75 Large 0.5 m 2.84 Large 0.75 m 0.25 stopped after 10 seconds Large 1.0 m 1.11 Large 1.5 m 56.3 Large 1.75 m 31.12 Large 2.0 m 37.6 The variable I had to acquire 6 different results for each variable. The first time I tried 0.5 m with a small chip size so then I used a different concentration of acid but I kept the same volume through out the experiment. I then measured in between 0.5 and 1.0 (0.75) and that gave a good result I then tried the first concentration of 0.5 with the large sized chip but it took to long but as I increased the concentration the reaction sped up. My variable was the concentration of the acid; it varied from 0.5M to 2.0M I mixed the different concentrations of acid with water. I tried 0.25M but the reaction was to slow. I did six sets of results for the small size chips and then another six results for the larger sized marbles. Analysis My results generally show what is was expecting to se in my experiment. Apart from a few minor exceptions my results follow a general pattern which supports the collision theory which states 'for a chemical reaction to occur, particles must collide with each other in the correct way and also have enough energy for the collision to be successful'. ...read more.

Conclusion

* The syringe may have had a small chip in it causing gas to escape * I could have weighed the marble chips incorrectly which could have let to an increase in gas being produced thus causing the reaction to speed up because there are more particles colliding. * It was very hard to count the seconds with the higher molar concentrations so I may have stopped the stopwatch to late, or early. Most of the predictions that were made in the coursework planning section have been proven correct because in all cases in my experiment the concentration of the marble chips has altered the rate of reaction. The reason for this is that concentration is one of the factors that affects rate of reaction and so my prediction about more gas being produced with higher molar acid is correct. From the graphs and the results tables I can see that the higher concentration is the faster the rate of reaction. So for higher concentrations the lines on the graph were steeper than for lower concentrations. This also means that the higher the concentration the steeper the gradient. The reason for this is the major role of activation energy which is very much part of the collision theory because this energy decides whether a collision will result in a reaction and whether a successful reaction will take place. Investigating the factors which affect the rate of reaction between.doc 10/05/07 George Robertson (M) l5 ...read more.

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