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Investigating the factors which effect the rate of a chemical reaction.

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Introduction

Investigating the factors which effect the rate of a chemical reaction Introductory Information For a chemical reaction to happen the reactants involved must collide. The collision also has to transfer enough energy for a successful reaction. Particles will just bounce off one another without the atoms rearranging into a new product if the energy transfer is not large enough. The reaction that will be investigated is to measure the rate of reaction between two solutions. As the reaction precedes you will notice the solution getting cloudy. This happens because the product is a solid suspended in solution. To know when the reaction has stopped, a tile marked with a cross can be placed underneath the conical flask. When the cross can no longer be seen through the solution the reaction has finished. The problem with his is that you cannot be certain that the reaction has stopped completely when the cross can't be seen. To ensure that the results are as accurate as possible the conditions must always be the same i.e. ...read more.

Middle

If an acid was to react with a chunk of chalk and the chalk is in a solid ice cube, there are six sides for the acid particles to attack. If the cube of chalk is broken up into many smaller cubes, the particles on the surfaces of the small cubes that were inside the large cube are now open to attack. We have increased the area of exposed surfaces. The bigger surface area is made up of many more particles so there is now more chance of collisions taking place. Surface area does not affect my investigation because both reactants are liquid. * Catalysts Catalysts speed up (or slow down) reactions. If they increase the rate of reaction, time is saved. A catalyst often provides a surface where the particles can meet to react. Reactions on these surfaces need less energy transferred to make a collision successful. This will not affect my investigation because a catalyst is not used. ...read more.

Conclusion

1/average time (secs) x 1000 100 120 8.33 80 151 6.62 60 186.33 5.37 40 329.33 3.04 The graph shows: as concentration increases, time decreases. This graph also shows that the relationship between concentration and time is good. There is a positive correlation. The rate of change will not always be the same. Most chemical reactions are different to each other. The gradient of my graph is 0.8. Evaluation My method is not too clear because the practical was done on two different occasions and the temperatures on these two days were different. This makes the experiment slightly unfair. It was quite hard to tell when the reaction had finished because my sight is not perfect. To know exactly when the reaction has finished, a data logger could be attached to the experiment. A data logger robotically monitors the solution and gives exact times. It is more precise than a human eye, as a result making the results very accurate. ...read more.

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