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Investigating the neutralization of Alkali.

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Science Coursework April 2002 Investigating the neutralization of Alkali During the following experiment I hope to determine the process in which an alkali is neutralized by acid. Background Information Plan Safety - During this experiment the following safety precautions will be taken- -Eye protection will be worn throughout -Long Hair will be tied back -Care will be taken when handling apparatus, and chemicals -All Chemicals and apparatus containing chemicals will be placed on a chemical resistant mat/surface, to avoid damage to work surfaces The following Equipment will be needed during the experiment- -1 Burette -1 Conical Flask -1 Stand Substances/Chemicals needed - -Universal indicator -Sodium Hydroxide (NaHO) -Hydrochloric acid (HCL) of varying strengths (0.25 Molar through 2.0 Molar) A burette will be filled with Hydrochloric acid, of a particular strength, and placed in a stand. The amount of acid in the burette is unimportant. The conical flask will be filled with 16ml of Sodium Hydroxide. For a fair test to be carried out this value must remain constant throughout the test, as any more or less would make it easier/harder to neutralize.. Five drops of universal indicator will be added to the sodium hydroxide. Five drops should remain constant throughout, because more or less indicator may result in a different colour being produced, which may impede the collection of results. ...read more.


Using this information, I can make a prediction about the results of the experiment. Prediction As the molarity of the acid doubles, the half as much will be required to neutralize the alkali. A come to this prediction because a 2 molar solution is twice as concentrated as a 1 molar solution, so there is twice as many acidic particles to neutralize the alkali. I will now complete the experiment Results Below is a table of results for the experiment Acid Concentration Test no Start Level End Level Total Volume Mean from 3 tests 0.25 Molar 1 21 21.2 9.2 2 25.5 20 8.5 8.5 3 36.7 44.5 7.8 0.5 Molar 1 21 25.5 4.5 2 25.5 29.3 3.8 3.9 3 33 36.3 3.3 1 Molar 1 30 32.5 2.5 2 9.9 11.5 1.6 2.4 3 19.6 22.6 3.0 1.5 Molar 1 40.0 41.9 1.9 2 41.9 43.6 2.1 1.7 3 43.6 44.8 1.2 2 Molar 1 21.2 23.4 2.1 2 23.4 24.6 1.2 1.5 3 26 27.2 1.2 I will now draw two line graphs and a scatter diagram with line of best fit to show the relationship. This scatter graph shows a negative correlation, which in other words mean as the concentration of the acid increases the amount needed to neutralize the acid decreases. ...read more.


26.66666667 %26.66666667 %73.33333 0.466667 46.66666667 %46.66666667 %53.33333 0.428571 42.85714286 %42.85714286 %57.14286 0.184615 18.46153846 %18.46153846 %81.53846 The reliability of my results is quite poor, ranging from %84.78261 to %53.33333. Obviously my experiment had flaws that made the results unreliable. Possible errors in test and improvements - The above shows that my results have errors, these could have been caused by a number of things, below are a few possibilities. 1) When the alkali is neutralized, a green colour was seen, but it is possible the shade of this green may have been slightly from test to test. To improve this aspect in further experiments I would have to use a better system of colour identification, than just eyes. 2) Slight differences in the concentration/amount of universal indicator may cause slight colour difference, possibly affecting the judgement of neutralization. A more accurate system should be used to measure the amount of universal rather than the '5 drops' measurement. 3) The acidic solutions, were available in limited concentrations (up to 2 molars). Higher concentrations would be useful to test. Conclusions I feel I have collected enough evidence for my prediction to be proved right, even if the results are sometimes unreliable. The graphs and figures seem to show that when you half the acid concentration, you need twice as mush to neutralize an acid. ...read more.

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