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Investigating the rate of a chemical reaction

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Introduction

Luke Martin 26/11/2001 10Li Investigating the rate of a chemical reaction Introduction If magnesium is added to hydrochloric acid it eventually reacts with excess acid. Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid ? Magnesium chloride + Hydrogen Mg + 2Hcl ? mgcl2 + H2 Prediction 1 I predict that the rate of reaction will double, when the temperature is increased by 100c. This will happen, as when the heat increases, so does the kinetic energy, therefore giving the particles more energy causing them to move around a lot quicker, thus causing more reactions. As the more they move around then the greater the probability of a reaction, taking place. Also for a reaction to take place there must be a sufficient amount of energy (activation energy) so the more kinetic energy there is then that will increase the chances of the activation energy being present also increasing the probability of a reaction being able to take place Prediction 2 In my second prediction I predict that as the concentration of the acid doubled so will the rate. As when the concentration is increased, so does the amount of particles in the acid. So now that there are more particles, then more collisions there is likely to be, therefore having the same affect on the amount of reactions going to take place, increasing the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

So from my graphs in can say that my prediction for Temperature was correct, so as the temperature of the acid is increased, the rate of reaction increases as well, therefore the 40cm3 of hydrogen is produced quicker. Evaluation I feel that I was precise and accurate in recording measurements. I measured the acid accurately by measuring the acid when the bottom of the liquid meniscus just touched the line on the measuring cylinder. I accurately cut the magnesium ribbon to the nearest millimetre with the ruler provided. I measured the starting and the end temperature accurately with a thermometer to the nearest 10C. I accurately measured the volume of gas evolved to the nearest 1cm3. I accurately measured the time that had elapsed to the nearest second with the stop clock. Improvements to my experiment are that I could also use a monometer to be sure that the atmospheric pressure inside the syringe is the same as the pressure outside. To be sure that the pressure is the same inside the syringe as outside the syringe the water levels in the monometer must be level. The last improvement to my procedure is that I should check for gas leakages where the bung is placed into the conical flask, a smear of Vaseline would help me do this. ...read more.

Conclusion

was a smaller surface area for the acid to react with, so as I stated in my third prediction, the larger the surface area the greater the rate of reaction, but if this is reversed it means that if the surface area is decreased then the rate of reaction will become less. So that is why this freak result occurred in the experiment. A way to overcome this happening again is to find out at what temperature this kind of result occurs, so in future experiments I will know the limits of the acid and what temperature not to exceed. As I only did an experiment for my first prediction, I can only evaluate that prediction and results. In my prediction I predicted that the rate of reaction would double if the temperature (oc) were to increase by 10. I can conclude that my prediction was partly true; as the rate did double s the temperature was increased by 10 for the first three results ( 25oc = 0.01 / 35oc = 0.02 / 45oc = 0.04 ) after these three the rate began to go up in twos. So therefore I can finally conclude that to a certain temperature the rate of reaction will double as the temperature increases by 10oc. ...read more.

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