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Investigating the rate of a reaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigating the Rate of a Reaction In this investigation I have been investigating the rate of reactions. I will be investigating the rate of reaction with calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid, investigating the factors that affect the rate of the reaction. The rate of a reaction is how long a chemical reaction takes to happen. Some reactions are instant, like an explosion of gunpowder (KNO3) and others are slower such as the oxidation (rusting) of iron. The rate of a reaction is linked with the 'Collision Theory' which shows that if the rate of reaction is low, there are few collisions occurring and if the rate of reaction is high, there are many collisions. The rate of reaction is not always the same. There are many factors which affect the rate of a reaction and these are: * Concentration * Temperature * Surface Area * Pressure * Use of a Catalyst Preliminary Plan Before conducting the investigation I went through a preliminary investigation. This helped me analyse whether the method that I was using was suitable and indicated to me any changes that I might have to make while conducting my final results. To conduct the investigation I will need some a solid reactant and a liquid reactant. The solid reactant that I will be using is marble chips - calcium carbonate. As a liquid reactant (acid) I will be using hydrochloric acid. Below I have shown a balanced chemical reaction and word equation of the reaction that I will be using to investigate the rates of reaction: CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) � CaCl2 (g) + CO2 (g) + H20 (l) Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid � Calcium Chloride + Carbon Dioxide + Water To complete the investigation I will need an independent and dependant variable. The independent variable is the variables I will be changing throughout the investigation, which will help me, investigate the rate of a reaction. ...read more.

Middle

25 31 37 3 0 7 12 19 26 30 36 4 0 6 13 20 25 31 36 5 0 7 14 21 27 33 39 Average 0 6.4 12.8 19.4 25.6 31.2 36.8 Variance 0.00% 15.63% 15.63% 15.46% 7.81% 9.62% 8.15% 1.25 1 0 8 17 26 33 40 47 2 0 8 16 24 31 38 45 3 0 9 16 25 32 39 46 4 0 9 18 25 32 39 47 5 0 8 15 24 30 37 44 Average 0 8.4 16.4 24.8 31.6 38.6 45.8 Variance 0.00% 11.90% 18.29% 8.06% 9.49% 7.77% 6.55% 1.5 1 0 11 21 31 41 50 59 2 0 11 21 32 41 50 58 3 0 10 19 30 39 48 56 4 0 11 22 32 42 51 60 5 0 11 23 31 39 48 56 Average 0 10.8 21.2 31.2 40.4 49.4 57.8 Variance 0.00% 9.26% 18.87% 6.41% 7.43% 6.07% 6.92% 1.75 1 0 14 30 47 59 73 82 2 0 14 30 45 58 71 83 3 0 15 31 47 62 75 85 4 0 14 27 40 52 63 73 5 0 15 31 46 58 72 84 Average 0 14.5 30.5 46.25 59.25 72.75 83.5 Variance 0.00% 6.90% 3.28% 4.32% 6.75% 5.50% 3.59% 2 1 0 17 35 52 67 80 91 2 0 17 36 52 67 81 92 3 0 16 30 44 58 71 84 4 0 17 33 51 65 79 89 5 0 18 36 53 69 82 93 Average 0 17.25 35 52 67 80.5 91.25 Variance 0.00% 5.80% 8.57% 3.85% 5.97% 3.73% 4.38% Conclusion I have created a graph from the results that I have collected. From this graph I can see a significant rise in the volume of gas as the molarity of the hydrochloric acid solution increased. As we increased the molarity of the solution from 0.25 molar to 2 molar, at increases of 0.25 molar the total amount of carbon dioxide produced increased. ...read more.

Conclusion

In connection as seen from the graphs, my range bars are relatively small in size. This shows that my results are accurate and that I have made reliable Additionally if I was to complete the experiment again I would complete more sets of results. This would help me getting a lower variance which means that my results are highly accurate and reliable. I can prove that my range bars are small as the highest range is 4 (2 Molar and 1.5 Molar), which is relatively low. If I was to complete the investigation again I would complete all the changes above. These changes would help in controlling all variables (surface area and weight of calcium carbonate chips, amount of hydrochloric acid used and temperature), help vary my independent variable (concentration of hydrochloric acid) and help measure my dependant variable (gas produced in time). I strongly believe if I was to complete the investigation with these changes I would achieve very accurate and reliable results which can help me draw precise conclusions. To draw a strengthened conclusion I would complete the experiment again with different solid and liquid reactants. This would help me prove whether the concentration affects the rate of reaction as other reactants may behave differently. By investigating other reactants, the results would help me prove whether the concentration affects the rate of reaction in other reactants other than calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. An example of another experiment I would conduct is the reaction between magnesium strips and sulphuric acid. Additionally I can continue with the experiment and test the hydrochloric acid with other compounds, or additionally I can conduct a reaction between calcium carbonate and other liquid solutes such as nitric, sulphuric and citric acid. By completing an experiment with other reactants it will help me come to an accurate and strengthened conclusion in deciding whether the concentration affects the rate of a reaction. ?? ?? ?? ?? GCSE Science 1 ...read more.

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