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Investigating the rate of a reaction, between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Investigating Reaction Rates Aim: I am investigating the rate of a reaction, which is between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid, and to do this I have chosen the concentration of the acid as my variable for the experiment. The products of a reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid is calcium chloride, carbon dioxide and water. CaCo3 + 2HCL = CaCL2 + H2O + CO2 So to measure the rate of reaction I will be measuring the time it takes to produce a certain amount of carbon dioxide. But to make the experiment fair I have to fix all of the other variables that affect my results. Variables Surface area of solid - The surface area has an effect on the rate of reaction as the larger the surface area of a solid the more opportunities there are for collisions to occur with the liquid. If the surface area is small, collisions can only occur with the outer atoms and is therefore limited. This variable however is difficult to weigh and measure thus I am not choosing to use it. There are three different sizes of marble chips available for me to use and to keep this variable fixed I must only use the same one throughout the experiment. ...read more.

Middle

* Measuring Cylinder 10ml - To measure acid and distilled water in order to produce accurate concentrations ready for the experiment. As I was measuring 20ml of solution, it would be the most sensitive measuring cylinder that I could use. * 2-4mm calcium carbonate chips - I also chose the 2-4mm size as the bigger chips reacted too slowly (as they had a lower surface area: mass ratio) to record the values of concentration. I will be measuring out 1gram of chips for every reading. * Plastic tray - To place chips in so they can then be placed on the digital scales and carried back to the experiment. The weight of the tray was deducted from reading on the scales each time. Also with a tray it is possible to slide all of the chips in at once, instead of having to drop them in one by one. The latter would cause inconsistencies, such as time, for one reading may have more chips dropped in after 5 seconds than another and thus it would have been able to produce more gas due to the collision theory. Ultimately it would be an unfair experiment. * Scales - To find the total mass of the chips in the plastic tray. ...read more.

Conclusion

Here the carbon dioxide displaced the water molecules and I timed how long it took for each concentrated solution to produce 10cm3 of gas so as soon as the carbon dioxide had bubbled up to this amount I called to my partner to stop the clock and the readings we took for all of our experiments are as follows. Concentration (% of Hcl) 1st Reading (seconds) 2nd Reading (seconds) 3rd Reading (seconds) 4th Reading (seconds) Average Time 100 30.65 23.59 21.22 22.40 22.40 80 32.12 25.38 27.88 27.78 27.01 60 43.00 44.87 42.38 42.13 43.09 50 63.65 53.18 65.06 57.32 59.80 40 82.10 57.18 67.50 63.44 62.70 I think enough readings were taken to ensure reliability; as there are at least three valid results for each concentration and most are roughly the same, which reflects an accurate procedure. However, there were a few anomalies (which I have put a cross by), which were quite far off of their equivalent readings, thus I have not included them in my averages. I have used the averages to figure out the reactions rate shown in the table below. Concentration (% of Hcl) Average Time Rate (cm3 Co2 per second) 100 22.40 0.044 80 27.01 0.037 60 43.09 0.023 50 59.80 0.016 40 62.70 0.015 Chemistry Coursework Lee Battu 11H ...read more.

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