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# Investigating the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate

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Introduction

﻿Investigating the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate Introduction I will carry out an experiment to find out how the changing the concentration affects the reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. The Balanced equation for this is CaCo3 + 2HCL ----> CaCl3 + H2O + CO2 calcium carbonate + Hydrochloric acid --> calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide The variable I will change is the concentration to find out what effect more concentrated and dilute solutions have on how long it takes for the mixture to turn clear I am going to time the reaction until it finishes I will know when to stop the reaction by placing a cross under the conical flask which will determine when the calcium carbonate is used up because the mixture will turn clear and the cross will be visible. Calcium carbonate is a solid that turns Hydrochloric acid translucent when reacted together but it is expected to turn cloudy & bubble. The time taken for a certain amount of calcium carbonate to disappear can indicate the rate of reaction. I will time the reaction by using a stop watch when calcium carbonate is added to Hydrochloric acid. I will vary the reaction by using different concentrations which require water to dilute the solution. Research Background Knowledge Rate of Reaction: This is the speed at which a reaction takes place. The chemical definition of rates of reaction is the rate of the chemical reaction as the change in concentration of any reactant or product in a solution is increased which is measured by unit in time. increasing the concentration , surface area ,adding a catalyst, gas pressure, reactants in solution , and temperature are all variables that can affect the rate of reaction. by increasing the amount of reactants in the chemical reaction there is a higher chance of particles colliding because there are more of them in the same volume the more frequently the particles collide the more chance of an ...read more.

Middle

had on the rate of reaction by being able to see what happens during the experiment by specifically recording the changes and how long the experiment lasted for. Equipment List Gas Syringe - This is the main part of the experiment the equipment that the experiment is dependent on it is a scale of how much gas is present during the experiment. The gas syringe has an accuracy of 1 and each large integer marked goes up in 10s the full capacity of the gas syringe is 100dm3. Conical Flask - the gas syringe had to be able to be a perfect fit into the conical flask because the idea is to trap the contents of all the reactants to be able to get an accurate reading and find the amount of gas produced. we tried different conical flask and chose one that measures to the nearest 10 with integers in between of 5. Beaker - this holds the contents of the hydrochloric acid and water temporarily until the measuring cylinder is used because it ensures safety instead of pouring the hydrochloric acid from the glass bottle which was quite heavy and difficult to handle the beaker allowed me to clearly see the amount I was using. and to keep it a fair test we used a separate beaker for the water. we could have used any sized beaker as we continuously used it for the number of experiments we were doing but to keep it a fair test we decided to use 2 of the same size for both the water and hydrochloric acid which had integers of 5 and the maximum contents was 250ml 2 Measuring cylinders - the measuring cylinders are an accurate measurement of how much water and hydrochloric acid we were using and was quite large with close integers which was clearer for us to see to identify the measuring cylinder with the water and the other with the hydrochloric acid we chose different colored ones one white and one cream to avoid confusion and to ensure accuracy. ...read more.

Conclusion

I feel that we should've peer reviewed the evidence with a wider range of people not just students in the class because this would have been able to support my judgment of the reliability further. Reliability of Conclusion I feel that if someone else was to carry out the experiment that I did using my method they would get similar results but not completely the same because the variables that we aren't able to control such as room temperature and the reactants they use wouldn't come from the same source for example the hydrochloric acid we used there were 3 bottles we couldve used but we stuck with the same one since they all had different concentrations mixed with water which means it could have an impact on the reliability of the results and conclusion. I am fairly confident in my conclusion but I have learnt by carrying out this experiment that you cant expect to get exactly the same results each time you carry it out. Another reason why if someone carried out the same experiment using our method they wouldn't get the same results because they wouldn?t be able to calculate an average if we have to repeat the experiment three times and not get the exact same result each time then someone else wouldn't either. I always feel that there is room for improvement if the experiment is repeated so I cannot completely agree with the reliability of my conclusion 100% and there were too many things I was unsure of when assessing the results I ended up with. If someone was to repeat the experiment I do believe they would end up with a similar if not the same trend because when compared even without the exact same amount of reactants used a similar trend and pattern seemed evident. Overall My procedures and Reliability of my evidence make me feel both strongly confident in my conclusion and not so confident in my conclusion because to make a specific judgement all of the factors in the experiment have to be considered. ...read more.

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