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Investigating the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and chalk.

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Introduction

Chris Wirt 09/01/01 Investigating the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and Chalk (Calcium Carbonate) Aim: The aim of my investigation is to research into how the reaction between hydrochloric acid and Chalk (Calcium Carbonate can be effected by changing conditions. Variables: These are the variables which I could use in my experiment: * Changing the surface area of the solids(CaCo). * Changing the concentration of the reactants(HCL). * Changing the temperature of the reactants(HCL). Surface area: When the surface area for the reaction is changed the speed to the reaction will increase. As far more of the substance will be able to react at the same time, with the larger surface area the number of collisions between particles will also be far greater. Concentration: Increasing the concentration of the reactant will increase the rate of reaction. This is due to the fact that there will be a far greater amount of particles in the same amount of space, increasing the chance of a collision between particles. Temperature: Increasing the temperature will increase the rate of reaction. As when the temperature is increased the energy changes to kinetic energy in the chemical particles. With more kinetic energy the particles will move much faster. E.g. Out of these possible variables I am going to change the concentration of the reactant for my variable. This is because I feel that I will be able to obtain the most interesting results. List of apparatus: * Hydrochloric acid (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 Molar strength) * Chalk (Calcium Carbonate) 0.25g measurements * Clamp stand * Boss Bolt * Gas syringe * 100ml conical flask * Stop watch Safe Test: I will make this a safe test by doing the following: * Wearing glasses to prevent chemicals from getting in my eyes and causing damage. ...read more.

Middle

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Conclusion

I did measure the room temperature at 29?C and this stayed constant though out the experiment. Apart from doing repetitions of the experiment I could have attempted to measure the amount of gas every 5seconds rather than every 10 this would of produced far more results and of a higher quality. Although not necessarily better as the amount of human error would be far greater with the degree of difficulty involved when measuring every 5 seconds. There are a number of possibilities for follow up experiments, as the set up of my experiment is very versatile and I could simply change one of the other variables: * Temperature - I could alter the current set-up of my experiment to investigate into how temperature affects the rate of reaction. This would be done by keeping all of my experiment the same but rather than changing the concentration I would be changing the temperature. I would expect to find that as the temperature is increased the rate of reaction is also increased, as heat causes particles to move faster and so there would be a greater chance of a reaction. * Surface area - I could also alter the investigation to research into how the surface area of the CaCo affects the rate of reaction. This would be done by repeating my experiment by rather than changing the concentration of the acid I would be changing the amount of CaCo. I would expect to find that as I increase the surface area the rate of reaction would increase but take longer to finish the reaction, this is as there will be more particles to react, increasing the number of collisions yet also increasing the time taken due to the increase in the amount of reactant. ...read more.

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