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Investigating the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium.

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Introduction

Investigating the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium Aim: - My aim is to investigate the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon (mg) and hydrochloric acid (hcl). I will be doing an experiment to find out what the effects are on the rate of reaction when changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid. Prediction: - There are a number of factors that effect the rate of reaction these are; concentration, temperature, surface area (in solids) also the affect of catalysts. As I will be investigating the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction I will keep all the other factors the same. I predict that the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium would increase as the concentration of hydrochloric acid increases. Reasons: - A chemical reaction is the process by which atoms or groups of atoms are redistributed, resulting in a change in the molecular composition of substances. An example of a chemical reaction is formation of rust (iron oxide), which is produced when oxygen in the air reacts with iron. There are three things which need to happen in order for a chemical reaction to take place, these are: 1. The particles of the two substances must collide. 2. The particles must collide in the right orientation 3. The particles must collide with enough energy to overcome the activation energy. These are explained below: The orientation of collision Consider a simple reaction involving a collision between two molecules - ethane, CH2=CH2, and hydrogen chloride, HCl, for example. ...read more.

Middle

If you increase the concentration of B, that will undoubtedly speed up the second step, but that makes hardly any difference to the overall rate. You can picture the second step as happening so fast already that as soon as any X is formed, it is immediately pounced on by B. That second reaction is already "waiting around" for the first one to happen. Surface Area: - In reaction between magnesium metal and dilute hydrochloric acid. The reaction involves collision between magnesium atoms and hydrogen ions. The equation for this reaction is: When a solid reacts with a liquid or gas, the size of the particles of solid will affect the rate of the reaction. Larger lumps have a smaller surface area than the same mass of smaller pieces. Powders contain small particles of solid, which have a very large surface area and can therefore react very quickly. Temperature: - As you increase the temperature the rate of reaction increases. As a rough approximation, for many reactions happening at around room temperature, the rate of reaction doubles for every 10�C rise in temperature. Increasing the collision frequency: - Particles can only react when they collide. If you heat a substance, the particles move faster and so collide more frequently. That will speed up the rate of reaction. It turns out that the frequency of two-particle collisions in gases is proportional to the square root of the Kelvin temperature. ...read more.

Conclusion

We were told to drop the magnesium into the flask, replace the bung as quickly as possible and start the stopwatch at the same time. This could've been very inaccurate because the magnesium and hydrochloric acid will start reacting before the bung is replaced. This could've been improved if there was a glass wall to separate the magnesium and the acid and so all we had to do was shake the flask and they would start reacting. This would've been much more precise as the stopwatch would be started as soon as the reaction started. Another inaccuracy was that we done the experiment on three different days and in two different labs, this might have been inaccurate because the temperature may have not been the same on different days and in different rooms. This could've been improved if we measured the temperature of the acid every time. It may have also been more accurate if we had weighed the pieces of magnesium instead of just measuring the length of it. It would've also been better if we had increased the amount e.g. 1g. The pressure of the hydrogen gas given off could've also been measured to make sure it was constant so it wouldn't affect the results in any way. Overall our results were not accurate enough to make any firm conclusions, they were also quite limited as we only done four concentrations of acid, this could've also been improved if we had more time to obtain more results. 9 May, 2007 Sara Saidpour Chemistry coursework 11LO/11B1 1 ...read more.

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