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Investigating the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate.

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Introduction

Investigating the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT Introduction: - In this experiment, I will be investigating the factors that affect the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate. There are several variables that affect the rate, such as: * Temperature * Concentration * The surface area I will be investigating how the rate of reaction is varied by the concentration of sodium thiosulphate. When doing this, sodium chloride, sulphur dioxide and water are formed. Water and sodium chloride do not affect the results of the experiment. The word and symbol equation for the experiment is: Na2 S2 O3 (aq) + 2HCl (aq) 2NaCl (aq) + S (s) + SO2 (g) + H2O (l) Sodium + hydrochloric sodium + sulphur (s) + sulphur + water (l) Thiosulphate (aq) acid (aq) chloride (aq) dioxide (g) I will be testing how long it takes for the solution to go cloudy. It will go cloudy as the sulphur is formed. I am able to tell that it is sulphur as it is the only substance that forms a precipitate. I can also test for sulphur dioxide as it turns damp litmus paper red. ...read more.

Middle

I will also draw a cross on a piece of paper and place it under the conical flask. When the cross is no longer visible, then I will stop the stopwatch. This is a more accurate way of timing how long it takes for the sulphur precipitate to form. In the preliminary, I was timing how long the reaction took by just looking into the boiling tubes and estimating when the solution had gone cloudy. This method was not very accurate as the cloudiness of the solution could have been different each time. I will do the experiment at intervals of 0.3 mol/dm3, repeating the experiment after each reading. This is so I can take an average of the results that I have collected. This also gives me more reliable results. To change the volume of sodium thiosulphate, I had to add distilled water. The following amounts of distilled water and sodium thiosulphate were added to each conical flask: Concentration (mol/dm3) Volume of distilled water (ml) Volume of 0.15 mol/dm3 sodium thiosulphate (ml) 0.03 40 10 0.06 30 20 0.09 20 30 0.12 10 40 0.15 0 50 Results: Concentration (mol/dm3) Time (seconds) ...read more.

Conclusion

A light beam would be placed underneath the conical flask, and a sensor above it. The sensor is then connected to the computer. When the sensor can't detect the light beam due to the amount of sulphur collected, the end point has been reached. The computer records the time taken. The sensor and light beam should be kept at the same distance away from the conical flask each time to make the experiment accurate. This is a more accurate way of distinguishing when the solution is cloudy. When the light beam goes out, this means that the same amount of sulphur has been collected in each experiment. Also, better standard of measuring cylinders and pipettes could have also been used. Also, when pouring the acid into the conical flask, there may have been some acid left behind in the measuring cylinder, making the acid content not exactly 10 ml for each experiment. This could have made the experiment unfair. Instead, we could have used measuring burettes. These would have been more accurate as they have taps, which we can turn on and off, therefore increasing the reliability of the results. Another factor that could have affected the results is the timing. The stopwatch could have been started and stopped at different times, which would also make the experiment unfair. ...read more.

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