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Investigating the Rate of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid (Hcl) and Magnesium (Mg).

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

CHEMISTRY COURSEWORK PLANNING AIM: INVESTIGATING THE RATE OF REACTION BETWEEN HYDROCHLORIC ACID (HCL) AND MAGNESIUM (Mg). SCIENTIFIC THEORY AND THE VARIABLES A rate of reaction is measuring how fast two substances can react to form two new substances in a set period of time. The measurement of the reaction can take place by finding out how much of a new substance is formed. In most cases, and as in my experiment, the volume of gas produced can be recorded. In other experiments the mass of a solid or the volume of a liquid can be found. A reaction takes place because bonds are broken and new ones are formed. In my investigation I am reacting hydrochloric acid with magnesium. This will form magnesium chloride and hydrogen. The formula is: HYDROCHLORIC ACID + MAGNESIUM MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE + HYDROGEN The balanced symbol equation is: 2HCl (aq) + Mg (s) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) This means that the hydrogen bond with the chlorine is displaced by magnesium, therefore forming magnesium chloride. This proves that magnesium is higher in the reactivity series than hydrogen. Knowing that the reaction takes place through the displacement of bonds between magnesium and hydrogen one can prove another vital point. That is, that the hydrochloric and magnesium atoms must come in contact for the reaction to take place. Therefore, the rate of reaction can speed up or slow down depending on how many times hydrochloric acid particles and magnesium atoms collide. So, if one can control the amount of hydrochloric acid particles colliding with magnesium atoms you can, in effect control the rate at which the two substances form. As a brief note, I would like to explain 3 terms used during this investigation. Activation energy: this is the amount of energy needed to break bonds. In our case it is the amount of energy required to break the bond between hydrogen and chlorine in the hydrochloric acid particle. ...read more.

Middle

This gives drastic changes in the results. Therefore, the magnesium must be coiled up before it is placed into the acids so that all of it is immersed. BIBLIOGRAPHY I have you the following sources to help for the planning of this report. Nigel D. Purchon PURCHON.COM Lawrie Ryan CHEMISTRY FOR YOU ANALYSIS WHAT I HAVE SEEN Looking at the results table the obvious connection with temperature and the rate of reaction is there, as the temperature increases so does the rate of reaction. So going back to my prediction I can say that I was accurate in the fact that I had predicted that as the temperature increases the rate of reaction also increases. That evidence is clearly shown in the graph of the rate of reaction. Just to make things easier on the explanation I will create a list of things which the results show mw. This will make reference to each point easier. 1) The rate of reaction increased as the temperature increased. 2) The amount of hydrogen gas formed at the end of the experiment increases as the temperature increases, after my prediction stated that the number should be the same. Also after my prediction said that the total volume of hydrogen that could possibly be formed would be 70.8cm3, three of my experiments were higher. 3) The reaction at the beginning of the 200C experiment was slower than the reaction at the beginning of the reaction for 100C. 4) The repeat of a temperature does not always match well with the first attempt. You can say that the rate of reaction will obviously be faster as the temperature increases because the total volume of gas formed will increase. This is not true because I am not measuring the rate of reaction through dividing the total volume of gas formed by the 300, the total time. But instead I am dividing the volume of gas formed by the time the gas took to reach its completion point. ...read more.

Conclusion

To increase reliability of the results you may have taken more readings at 50C, 150C and 250C. You could also have it had even smaller intervals, like 230C, 23.50C and 240C. However I feel that it would firstly be very hard to have the Hydrochloric acid reach each temperature with the accuracy needed, and I also feel that the difference between each temperature would be too insignificant to come to a firm conclusion. The only way you could test the difference with readings of such small intervals would be if around 40 reading were taken. And would take a very long time. Apart from this fact I think that the evidence gained is suitable to form a substantial conclusion of the reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Magnesium. OTHER LINKED INVESTIGATIONS Other investigations which could be done, related to this one, could be to keep temperature the same and change the variables mentioned in my prediction. Those are: * Concentration of the acid * Volume of acid * Surface area of the magnesium * Using a catalyst You could also change the substances, and test to see how the reactivity of different metals. You could also test the problems which have gone wrong and see if they really were a problem, and did affect the experiment. One which I would like to test is whether no hydrogen is present in the conical flask even after it seems that the experiment is over. One way of doing this is to somehow block the syringe after the hydrogen has been collected, perhaps pinching the tube. And then collecting the gas in a test tube. Once that has been done you can test for the hydrogen by putting a lit splint over the test tube. When the hydrogen is released a squeaky pop can be heard, telling you that hydrogen is present I have found that the experiment did go as planned and that my prediction did support my results. ?? (Footnote continued) SHEAHAN NARIMAN - 4 - - 5 - SHEAHAN NARIMAN - 1 - ...read more.

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