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Investigating the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

I have done some preliminary work to investigate the best way of investigating the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. Magnesium + hydrochloric acid magnesium chloride + hydrogen Preliminary work 1 The first method I used is shown in the diagram above, which shows the way the apparatus is set out. This experiment measures how long it takes for the magnesium and hydrochloric acid to react to form magnesium chloride+ hydrogen. The magnesium and hydrocloric acid in the test tube react to make hydrogen,which travels through the delivery tube and into the measuring cylinder and measures how much hydrogen is collected as the hydrogen forces the water out of the measuring cylinder. This can be used to measure the rate of the reaction and I am trying to collect 50cm3 of hydrogen. In this experiment I have used three different types of magnesium (a strip of magnesium, a strip of magnesium cut up into three pieces and magnesium turnings) all weighing at 0.05g, also I have used 25cm3 of hydrochloric acid. The equipment I have used is a stop clock, bowl of water, measuring cylinder, bung, delivery tube and a test tube. Here are the results:- Size of magnesium (0.05g) Time taken to collect 50cm3 (seconds) Stip of magnesuim 358 Magnesium cut up into three pieces 314 As you can see, as the pieces of magnesium gets smaller, the faster the rate of reaction becomes. ...read more.

Middle

I am still going to use a strip of magnesium weighing 0.05g, 25cm3 of solution which has water and hydrochloric acid in. In school I am allowed to use a maximum of 2.0 molar of concentration due to health and safety reasons. So I have decided to go up 1/2 a molar for each experiment, however for the last experiment I am going to use 0.25M, which is not 1/2 a molar, but it should work o-k as it should be similar to 0.5 but a bit slower. This means I will have to do five experiments and I think my concentration levels are at a sensible range and are fair because they go up equally 1/2 molar at a time, which may allow a pattern (except 0.25M). Also I used 05M and it worked o-k in a previous preliminary work. I am going to make my solution of water and hydrochloric acid at the same volume of 25cm3 and so I will have to calculate and measure out accurate amounts of hydrochloric acid and water. The table below shows the proportion of acid and water I am going to use in percentages. Concentration (molar) Volume of acid (%) Volume of water (%) 2.0 100 0 1.5 75 25 1.0 50 50 0.5 25 75 0.25 12.5 87.5 So for example 75% of 25cm3 is 18.75cm3 I am going to repeat this experiment 3 times as I feel it is needed to get reliable results. ...read more.

Conclusion

To improve this I can use an ignition tube, which will prevent any hydrogen being let out. This works by the bung already being fit into the conical flask and all you have to do is tip the conical flask so that the ignition tube, containing the magnesium, falls over, the magnesium falls out and the experiment is started without the hassle of opening and closing the bung. Another thing I have done wrong was that when I used the 0.05g of magnesium I only measured 4cm off and I measured the mass once. I then assumed the mass would remain constant every time I measured 4cm. To improve this I should have weighed the magnesium each time by using an electronic balance which is unfailing at measuring light weights. A further error I had made was that I used a measuring cylinder to measure the acid when I had known that it would not give me accurate measurements, which would have gave me errors in my experiment. To atone this mistake I should have used a pipette as it would have give me the correct measurements and made my results extra reliable due to the ease of reading and measuring the acid. If I had done all the alternatives I have mentioned above, I would have been confident that my experiment is errorless and reliable. This is because they are bound to give accurate measurements of magnesium, acid and keep all the gas in during the experiment. ?? ?? ?? ?? Investigating the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. Tasnim Anjum ...read more.

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***
This is a straightforward task with limited complexity, but it does require good precision and a wide range of data. The use of technique and equipment was well justified and supported by extensive preliminary work. The Data covers the relevant range with regular repeats for reliability.
To improve the investigation:
1) The majority of factors that affect the rate of reaction need to be explained. Also how each of these factors is accounted for should be noted.
2) The data should recorded to the same degree of accuracy and any weaknesses in the data should be identified.
3) The conclusion should be justified by using detailed scientific knowledge.

Marked by teacher Cornelia Bruce 17/03/2013

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