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Investigating the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid at different temperatures.

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Introduction

ALEX DIXON SCIENCE COURSEWORK Investigating the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid at different temperatures. Mg + HCl ==> MgCl2 + H2 magnesium + hydrochloric acid magnesium chloride + hydrogen After having done 3 different experiments to prove the collision theory, we found that measuring the amount of gas through a delivery tube into a measuring cylinder is the best because it is easy to record the results. The other experiments included: Mass loss - this was very fiddly weighing out and the numbers between each time we took the result were so small it was very hard to plot a graph. Surface area - this experiment was good in explaining the collision theory but it could not be used to find out different rates with temperature because it would be too fast with the chosen chemicals.(If powdered Mg was used) Timing until Mg disappeared - this was a very simple experiment but as the temperature got higher (40?C ) it was virtually the same time as 50 C and at low temperatures took too long. We are going to use the gas collection idea because it is the most accurate and is the simplest to plot on a graph. ...read more.

Middle

There would be more collisions happening the more concentrated the acid becomes and this would change the rate. We will use the hydrochloric acid every time as changing to other acids can vary in strength. We are planning to repeat the experiment 3 times so that we can get an average and we avoid the chance of an odd result. In the below diagram when the acid is heated to the correct temperature the flask will be taken off from the heat as the gauze would still be hot and would continue to heat the acid. The equipment will be set up as follows: When the Mg is added to the HCl they will produce hydrogen in the reaction. The hydrogen will travel down the delivery tube and will bubble up into the measuring cylinder, therefore we will be able to measure the volume of hydrogen given off. The water in the trough is to prevent the gas escaping out the bottom of the measuring cylinder. We will use a Bunsen to heat the HCl. To make the experiment safe we will wear safety glasses in case the HCl gets splashed. ...read more.

Conclusion

Firstly we could investigate the rate of reaction between Mg and HCl but this time the variable could be the concentration of the acid. This would be a good test to see if the amount of particles in the acid changed the rate of reaction which would also prove the collision(More collisions as particles are denser).To test this theory we would use the same equipment and plan but just change the concentration of the acid instead of the temperature of the HCl. We could also test to see if Mg powder reacted quicker with the HCl as the surface area would be larger so there would be more frequent collisions. This also comes back to the collision theory and would be a good test to prove it. Using this method you could change any of the variables(concentration of the acid, temperature of the acid etc) and compare it with the results using Mg ribbon. The other test we could do is the mass loss experiment. This would prove that the reaction lost weight during the reaction and like the last alternative experiment any of the variables could be changed. This also refers back to the collision theory that a reaction loses weight as if goes on which would be useful to test the different rates of reactions. Science Coursework Alex Dixon ...read more.

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