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Investigating the Rate of Reaction From the Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid On Calcium Carbonate.

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework INVESTIGATING THE RATE OF REACTION FROM THE CONCENTRATION OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID ON CALCIUM CARBONATE. HYPOTHESIS: In order to find out how the concentration of hydrochloric acid, HCl, changes the rate of reaction between itself and calcium carbonate, CaCO3, (marble) I need to know as much as I can about what effects the rate of a reaction. A reaction rate is the speed, slow or fast, that a chemical reaction takes place at. There are four factors that could affect the rate of a reaction: 1) Surface area: The larger the surface area the quicker the reaction. The smaller the surface area the slower the reaction. This is only a factor when one of the reactants is a solid and the other a liquid. This means that the reaction can only occur on the surface of the solid. When there is just one piece there is only a small surface area and not much space for the reaction to take place. With smaller pieces amounting to the same volume there is a far larger area and more space for the reaction to complete itself and will therefore happen a lot quicker. 2) Temperature: The higher the temperature the quicker the reaction. The lower the temperature the slower the reaction. Temperature is the scale of how quickly particles move, so as temperature rises the quicker and further the particles move and the more collisions there are so there are more successful reactions. ...read more.

Middle

- Time of experiment, 1 min. - Equipment Variable: - Concentration of HCl SAFETY: Safety must always be considered for any experiment, especially when there are dangerous substances being used. In this experiment we are using Hydrochloric acid, which is corrosive, even more so at its higher concentration. - Wear safety goggles - Work on a clear and large work-surface - Take care at all times, especially with the acid and glass equipment. METHOD: Apparatus: - conical flask - rubber bung - delivery tube - plastic tub - water, to fill plastic tub - measuring cylinder - calcium carbonate, small chips - hydrochloric acid, varying concentrations - stopwatch The apparatus was set up as above. To keep the measuring cylinder full of water so we gain an accurate result you must fill it up and keep your finger over the end as you tip it up and place it in the tub of water. There must be no water allowed to escape and air let in so that it is a fair test. 20ml of HCl was placed in the conical flask followed by 1g of small marble chips. The rubber bung must be placed on immediately after and the stopwatch started. The bubbles from the delivery tube will then be collected in the measuring cylinder. After 1 minute stop and take a reading of the volume of carbon dioxide. ...read more.

Conclusion

EVALUATION: These results are quite reliable, the first experiment was perfect because the results were exact but there were some questionable results in the second, they were only marginally out and you could still clearly see the pattern. Because these results were only marginally out it proves that these results were reliable and that is why the results were averaged out. As the first experiment proves this was a good method just good care needs to be taken when doing the experiment. The hardest part of the experiment to keep fair was making sure that no air got into the measuring cylinder when it was turned upside down to collect the gas, it may be best to use a sealed syringe to collect the gas in future experiments. The range of the results I took was good enough to show me exactly what I needed to know, I would predict that this pattern would continue for a larger range of results, I could try this as another investigation, to find how far the pattern goes. I could also investigate the effect of surface area, temperature and the use of a catalyst on the rate of a reaction for more investigations, I could compare the different affects they have against each other and perhaps what environments they would be useful to use in. 4 Laura Hill Page 1 of 5 ...read more.

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