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Investigating the rate of reaction of hydrochloric acid with calcium carbonate

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework Douglas Dixon Investigating the rate of reaction of hydrochloric acid with calcium carbonate Introduction We are going to investigate the rate of the reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. Our task is to "to investigate how varying the concentration of acid will effect the rate of the reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble / limestone." The equation of the reaction is: Calcium carbonate + Hydrochloric acid --> Calcium + Water + Carbon chloride dioxide CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) --> Ca Cl2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g). Background Knowledge Rate is a measure of how fast or slow something is. For example, Silver Chloride precipitating is a very fast reaction while Concrete setting may take a couple of days to harden. Rate is a measure of the change that happens in a single unit of time. Any suitable unit of time can be used - a second, a minute, an hour or even a day. To find the rate of reaction, you should measure: The amount of reactant used up per unit of time or the amount of a product produced per unit of time. Reactions are important in everyday life. Carmakers would not be very profitable if the car they made only lasted a few days or hours before oxidizing with the air. ...read more.

Middle

The thinner you cut the slices, the more slices you get and so the more butter and jam you can put on them. This is "Bread and Butter Theory". By chewing your food you increase the surface area so that digestion can go faster. 4. Amount of acid or marble-It is important to get the right amount of marble and acid if one them is in too small amount then there will be an incomplete reaction. Keeping this in mind I have decided to use excess quantities of acid to insure there is a complete reaction. *Note: Another variable would be the use of a catalyst. The reaction will be faster but the catalyst will not be used up during the reaction. When the activation rate is lower not much energy is needed to make the reaction successful. But we are not going to use a catalyst in this experiment so it is not a factor needed to be considered. Controlled variable: I will test change the concentration of the experiment to see if this affects Prediction I predict that if the concentration of the HCl is doubled then the experiment will happen twice as fast. This is because twice as many HCl particles will be present than previously and there will be twice as much chance of the calcium carbonate chips colliding with the concentrated hydrochloric acid. ...read more.

Conclusion

complete Verdict 2.00 mol/dm3 2.00g 3.59 seconds Much too fast 2.00 mol/dm3 1.00g 7.12 seconds Much too fast 1.00 mol/dm3 1.00g 25.66 seconds Too fast 1.00 mol/dm3 0.50g 67.77 seconds Still relatively fast, but will work for the highest concentration. 0.50 mol/dm3 0.50g 83.00 seconds Good length 0.01 mol/dm3 0.50g Over 2 minutes Too slow The results show the reaction went too quickly or too slowly to record results. It also was difficult to read the results as the measuring cylinder needed to be turned upside down in the experiment meaning the label we read from to record results were also upside down. For the experiment we re-decided that the mass of the marble to be only 0.5g but to keep the marble in its powdered form. Powdered marble is easier to measuring out than larger lumps that would be varied masses. Both the form and the mass of marble would remain a constant variable throughout the experiment. New improvements to the apparatus now meant that we would use a gas syringe instead of the measuring cylinder that was harder to use. Are input variable (the acid) would be measured from 0.2 mols to 1 mol at 0.2 mol intervals. Experiment The apparatus we are using are similar to the experiment using magnesium ribbon. We found this to be the most success apparatus to record accurate results with so far. The apparatus were as follows ...read more.

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