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# Investigating the reaction between Bromine and Cyclohexane

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Introduction

Investigating the reaction between Bromine and Cyclohexane The outline of my experiment By adding bromine to a mixture of Cyclohexane and water, and placing the mixture under a bright light and shaking from time to time, Hydrogen Bromide is formed. This reaction is shown below: C6H12 + Br2 C6H11Br + HBr When the bromine has all reacted and the red colour has gone, the hydrogen bromide can be titrated with sodium hydroxide. This reaction is shown below: HBr + NaOH NaBr + H2O From this titration I can then work out the HBr formed per mole of Bromine. Results of my experiment Class results. Group Number Mass of Br2 (g) Titre (cm3) 1 0.99 32.50 2 0.94 29.80 3 1.03 32.60 4 1.04 34.20 5 1.17 35.70 6 0.94 31.25 7 0.95 30.50 8 1.04 32.50 9 1.10 32.20 Average 1.02 to 2dp 32.36 to 2dp Working out the mean averages To work out the mean averages I used the following formula: Sum of column / number of groups My results- with raw data Original mass of stoppered flask (g) Mass after Bromine was added (g) Mass of Br2 (g) Initial burette volume (cm3) Final Burette volume (cm3) Amount of NaOH added (cm3) ...read more.

Middle

1x100/35= 2.86% %Error for measuring cylinder (distilled water)=0.5x100/15=3.33% As you can see the percentage error for each piece of equipment is very low and therefore I feel that the techniques used are very suitable. How I worked out the error in readings for my equipment The balance reads to 2dp hence the error each time I use it is 0.005g as the balance rounds to 2dp. Therefore since I used the balance twice the error is doubled and hence becomes 0.01g The Burette reads to within 0.05cm3 as I record the volume of NaOH twice this means that each time my readings could be out by 0.1cm3 The Cyclohexane measuring has divisions every 2 ml. Therefore I could read accurately up to 1 ml or 1 cm3. The distilled water-measuring cylinder has divisions every 1ml therefore I can read accurately to within 0.5 cm3 From the percent errors above I can see that the major source of error in regards to equipment was the two measuring cylinder as they weren't as accurate as I would have hoped. Meaning that in the extreme cases my measurement of Cyclohexane could have been 35.5 cm3 or 34.5cm3, which would have altered my titre. As an increase of 0.5cm3 of Cyclohexane will result in a slightly higher titre, as more sodium Hydroxide is needed to titrate the extra 0.5cm3. ...read more.

Conclusion

Fourthly if the volumetric flasks have been put under different light sources or for different amounts of time then some of the mixtures may not be decolourised and therefore titration's may be decreased as more NaOH is needed to be able to notice a colour change in the solutions. Finally if some of the sodium hydroxide sticks to the top of the volumetric flask whilst the NaOH is being added then the titration may have increased as it appears that more sodium hydroxide has been added whereas there is similar amounts used in each titration however there is additional NaOH on the top of the volumetric flask which has not come into contact with the Cyclohexane solution. Overall I feel that my results were fairly good as my groups titre was similar to the groups average and therefore my experimental work must have been carried out well, with very few errors. Although I feel this the above information suggests that this particular titre was which is why we got such a variation in results. I feel that in order to improve my results, that I need to find more accurate measuring cylinders in order to measure the amount of Cyclohexane as the one I used had a relatively high percentage error flask whilst the NaOH is being added Chemistry titration coursework By Luke Springhall ...read more.

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