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Investigating the reaction between Marble Chips and Hydrochloric Acid.

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Introduction

Investigating the Reaction between Marble Chips and Hydrochloric Acid Background Information The reaction rate tells us how fast or slow a chemical reaction is and there are four factors that can affect this greatly, they are: Concentration: An increase in concentration means there are more particles. More particles means there will be more collisions. This should increase the reaction rate. Surface Area: When one of the reactants is solid, the reaction can only take place at the surface of the solid. Breaking the solid into smaller pieces will increase the surface area exposed to the other reactant. This should increase the reaction rate. Temperature: Since temperature is a measure of the motion of particles, increasing the temperature will cause the particles to move faster. When particles move faster, more collisions occur and the collisions are more violent. This should increase the reaction rate Catalysts: Catalysts are substances that change the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed in the reaction. Catalysts are most often used to speed up a chemical reaction. They do so by changing the steps needed between reactants and the formation of the products. If the number of steps can be reduced, the reaction rate should increase. The Reaction Rate is often called the "Collision Theory", which describes the way temperature, concentration and surface area of the solid reactant affects the rate of reaction, by affecting collisions from particles. Particles react when they collide with sufficient energy. At a higher temperature collisions are more frequent and they also have more energy, both because particles are moving faster. ...read more.

Middle

0 15 30 47 60 80 1.6 0 18 40 55 70 90 1.6 0 18 33 48 75 91 Average Results for 1.6 Molar Acid 0 17 34.3 50 68.3 87 1.4 0 11 19 33 41 57 1.4 0 15 32 40 57 72 1.4 0 17 34 45 56 73 Average Results for 1.4 Molar Acid 0 14.3 28.3 39.3 51.3 67.3 1.2 0 10 18 28 39 50 1.2 0 11 19 31 39 51 1.2 0 13 23 31 42 52 Average Results for 1.2 Molar Acid 0 11.3 20 30 40 51 Analysis From looking at each graph and comparing the straight line that my results produce, with the line of best fit that I have included, it is obvious to the human eye that my results are not completely true to my prediction. On each graph there is one or more plots that are not on the line of best fit (albeit only very marginally in all cases). The shape of each graph is nearly a perfect straight line, however the fact that they are not perfectly straight tells us that the method I used was not totally accurate. In the case of every graph I have produced, the pattern my results show is that the more concentrated the acid, the higher the volume of gas recorded at each time-station. For example, below are the average volumes recorded at the second time station (30 seconds into the duration of the reaction), for each different concentration. They are displayed below in ascending concentration. ...read more.

Conclusion

This would also have provided me with inaccurate results. The gas syringe measures the volume of the gas it contains, every cm3, meaning that for some recording I found myself having to make split-second choices, estimating which marked value the gas volume was closer to. This will probably have created inaccurate results. The top pan balance gives its readings to 0.01g. This means that there was no way of telling that the marble chips being weighed had a total weight of exactly 1.0g. This would also have therefore have induced inaccurate results being recorded. In order to improve this experiment I would have to use a top pan balance that gave more precise readings. I think that my results are accurate enough to be used as a rough guideline for future investigations, to let the scientists know whether they are recording extreme anomalous results, but this is about all they are good for. They are definitely not accurate enough for a direct conclusion to be drawn from them, as I have outlined so many aspects of my method that may have induced inaccurate results. Because the surface areas of the marble chips were varied (with diameters of between 2 and 4 mm), the experiment was subsequently not scientific enough. In order to improve this experiment I would have to use marble chips with less differences in their surface areas, e.g. diameters of between 2 and 2.5mm. I could also have improved the experiment by narrowing the range of the independent variable (concentration). Centre Number - 25176 08/05/2007 Candidate No. 9014 Centre Name - Uppingham School 1 Candidate Name Callum Bush ...read more.

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