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Investigating the Relationship Between Temperature and Viscosity.

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Introduction

Investigating the Relationship Between Temperature and Viscosity

Aim:

         To investigate how the temperature of honey affects the viscosity.

Diagram:

Prediction:

                    I predict that the ball bearing will take less time to fall through the honey when it is at a higher temperature.

Liquids have frictional forces between layers as they flow through pipes. The name viscosity is given to these forces. Flow rate is reliant on viscosity. A measurement of flow rate can be used as an indication to the liquids viscosity.

Viscous drag is proportional to the weight of the object being dropped. When up thrust and viscous drag = gravity, the ball bearing has reached its terminal velocity, e.g. parachute

In honey, as speed increases, so does drag. This acceleration is important as the duration of acceleration may differ in different viscosities. If acceleration were included in the times distance that the ball bearing feel through then this would affect my results because they would show how the ball bearings acceleration changed in different viscosities.

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Middle

ML/T² = L²/T

L²/T = ML/T²

       = (ML/T²)(T/L²)

       = M/TL

Unit ML ¹ T ¹

For formula use, length is measured  in metres, time in seconds and mass in kilograms, so the unit for viscosity is – kg m ¹ s ¹

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This diagram shows the content of particles within the honey. Each particle has a force and is moving about colliding with other particles. As thermal energy is supplied to increase the temperature, the energy is shared out between the particles increasing the kinetic energy on each particle. If a ball bearing was to be dropped in honey at a lower temperature then it would fall slower because of the slower moving particles not moving out of its way. If you drop the ball bearing into warmer honey it will fall faster because the particles will move out of the way faster.

Method:

  1. Set up equipment as in diagram, with water bath at room temperature.
  2. Fill up plastic tube with honey above the mark of timed distance to give the ball bearing a chance to accelerate.
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Conclusion

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Average Time

(seconds)

Exp1

Exp2

Exp3

20

4.88

5.01

4.92

4.94

25

4.36

4.75

4.64

4.58

30

4.09

4.08

4.07

4.08

35

3.68

3.42

3.51

3.54

40

2.08

2.25

2.11

2.15

Temperature

°C

Velocity (metres/second)

Average Velocity

Exp1

Exp2

Exp3

20

0.0143

0.0139

0.0142

0.0141

25

0.0160

0.0147

0.0150

0.0152

30

0.0171

0.0171

0.0172

0.0171

35

0.0190

0.0204

0.0199

0.0198

40

0.0336

0.0311

0.0331

0.0326

Temperature (log)

Average Velocity (log)

1.322219295

-1.848283338

1.397940009

-1.81551588

1.477121255

-1.765914475

1.544068044

-1.703096559

1.602059991

-1.486159768

Evaluation:

                   Percentage errors:

Venire Calibre (diameter of ball bearing)

0.005/3 x 100 = 0.166%

This percentage error is very small and so will not affect my results.

Ruler (distance travelled)

0.05/7 x 100 = 0.71429%

This is again very small so my results will still be quite accurate.

The whole experiment is reliant on Newtonian physics. This means that the ball bearing will have to fall through the honey in a straight line, any variation to this would cause inaccuracies in my results.

Conclusion:

                      My results show the viscosity of honey is proportional to temperature. A variable that could have affected my results was the density of the honey but the volume of honey only raised by 1mm showing that the density change was not enough to account for the change in viscosity.

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