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Investigating the varying rates of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Magnesium ribbon.

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Introduction

Investigating the varying rates of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Magnesium ribbon. Introduction In this investigation I will be monitoring and analysing the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon. This, quite violent reaction will speed up when the temperature, concentration or surface area are increased (for details of which will be the main variable and why see the variables section). Aim The aim of this investigation is to monitor the effects of changing the concentration of the acid in a reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. I will analyse the results and try to give scientific reasons for them. Hypothesis Using my class notes and my own scientific knowledge I have drawn up a hypothesis. I will be changing the concentration of the acid in this experiment (for details of why see variables section), and I predict that when the solution is more concentrated the reaction will be faster, and when it is weaker the reaction will be slower. Here is a basic graph of what I expect to happen. The left hand graph has been drawn like this because a preliminary investigation about the reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid showed me that this is a common time /concentration graph Molarity of HCl solution (concentration) Molarity of HCl solution The second graph is what is predict the rate of reaction plotted against the molarity will look like, what it shows is a directly proportional relationship between the molarity and the rate of reaction, meaning that as the molarity doubles the rate of reaction does too. ...read more.

Middle

I will have to make sure I cut the pieces accurately. The reason I have chosen length over weight is because it will be a quick process, simply measure and cut, whereas getting the right weight of magnesium for each experiment would take a long time. One negative point about using the length is that you are assuming that the whole of the length of the roll is the same, but this, hopefully, won't effect the results too drastically. The fact that length was more practical was demonstrated in my preliminary investigation. > Total volume of acid solution. This is something that must be kept constant otherwise some pieces of magnesium will be surrounded by an unfairly large amount of Hcl molecules. > Shape of magnesium. This should always be roughly the same so there is the same surface area exposed to the acid solution, for instance, a strip of magnesium has a larger surface area than a ball. I have decided to bend my pieces of magnesium ribbon in to concertinas so they fit easily through the mouth of the flask and have the same surface area. > One other point which I think is worth mentioning is that I have decided not to swirl my solution to get the reaction started. The reason for this is I think that a 'swirl' is inaccurate and would lead to poor results. Apparatus Here is list of the equipment that will be used during the experiment. 5M Hydrochloric acid Distilled water Magnesium ribbon Conical flask Measuring cylinder Stopwatch Ruler Scissors Safety goggles Lab coat Method Before I ...read more.

Conclusion

I think the area where most errors may have occurred would have been the measuring of liquids, either by human error or because of the equipment, which was accurate to 1 ml. Because of this 1ml margin of error, there was a possible 4% inaccuracy, and on the lower concentrations this could have affected the results. The results I was least pleased with were the ones at strengths of 2 and 3M, so I did a couple more experiments for each and this gave me a better set of results. If I was to do this experiment again there is not a great deal I would change, as I was pleased with the results. If I had more time I may have decided to do the experiments in a water bath to try and regulate the temperature, but as I mentioned before, in this experiment, if I don't try to control the temperature of any of them then they will all have a temperature rise and it will be fair. Another thing that I'd change if there was more time and the experiment was repeated, would be the method for measuring the magnesium, since I feel weight would be more accurate than length. This was proven when we found out that that the two of the rolls of magnesium we had been using had different densities, and this would mean that 5cm from one roll would have a different weight from 5cm taken from the other roll. Obviously one other way to improve the accuracy of the results would be to do more experiments, this would give more accurate averages. ...read more.

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