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Investigating varying concentrations, affecting the Rate of Reaction between hydrochloric acid (HCL) and magnesium (Mg)

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Introduction

GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigating varying concentrations, affecting the Rate of Reaction between hydrochloric acid (HCL) and magnesium (Mg) Candidate name: Alexander Willink Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out the effect of concentration of acid, in the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon. Prediction: I predict that with an increase in concentration the rate of reaction will there for also increase. This will (I predict) be proven by the amount of hydrogen gas produced. If we increase the concentration, we are in essence, increasing the total number of collisions. This, in turn, will increase the number of effective collisions, and the rate will increase. Introduction: magnesium + hydrochloric acid magnesium chloride + hydrogen Mg (s) + 2Hcl (aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (aq) For a successful collision reaction to take place the reacting particles must collide with enough energy, this energy will need to be sufficient to break the magnesium bonds. Room temperature should be adequate. The rate of reaction can be measured by how many successful collisions occur in units of time, (the amount of hydrogen gas produced). When the concentration increases, so will the reaction. This is because there should be more particles to react with the magnesium. Whilst magnesium and hydrochloric acid particles are making successful collisions their particles are forming magnesium chloride and hydrogen. ...read more.

Middle

when the Concentration of HCL increases. The theory states that if, the more concentrated the Reactants, the greater the number of collisions between particles increases. This also explains why the greatest rate of reaction is usually as soon as the reactants have been mixed, i.e. they are both at their highest concentrations. As the reaction continues, the Concentration of the reacting substance decreases and so does the rate of reaction. We must consider what happens when a reaction takes place. First of all the particles of the Reacting substances must collide with each other, and secondly a fixed amount of energy Called activation energy* (Ea) must be reached for the double bonds to be broken into single ones. If the Particles can produce the right amount of energy (i.e. if they collide fast enough and in the Right direction) a reaction will take place. The reaction is speeded up if the numbers of Collisions are increased. In this investigation we must consider the topic of variables. Clearly, the time taken for the magnesium to disappear when it is placed in different concentrations of HCL is related in some way. The higher the concentration of HCL you use, the less time it takes for the magnesium to disappear and so the rate reaction increases. The concentration of HCL you use is the independent variable because it will Vary, and the time taken for the rate of reaction to take place (i.e. ...read more.

Conclusion

I submitted all the results to a computer program called excel, where, by using a formula, I was easily able to subtract each starting value from each set of results. By doing this, it would create the illusion that all experiments started at 0cm�. 7. I should have been more accurate in cutting the magnesium; my graphs prove that the magnesium was cut inaccurately. I would expect all the results to end at the same level. This, however, is not the case. One other explanation of the inaccuracy (you must understand I am trying to shift the blame a little) is the constant minor change in room temperature, emphasized by the fact that the tests were not executed all in the same setting. 8. I could also have gained more results by simultaneously recording the temperature. I could then ensure that the reaction was taken whilst in similar temperature conditions....different temperatures. How is done. 9. Another anomaly that is clearly spotted in the graph is the different concluding results for each experiment. I expected all the results to level out at roughly the same level. However there is a clear difference between 10. The line of best fit drawn from the graph can see the accuracy of the results. If it is clear that a point is not following the line, then it can be accounted for as an anomaly. There may be many reasons for such an occurrence. 1 1 GCSE Chemistry Coursework Alexander willink Chemistry coursework 2003 Page 1 of 1 ...read more.

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