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Investigation a Chemical Reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid

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Introduction

Investigation a Chemical Reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid Introduction The purpose of this investigation is to find what effects the changing of two easily changeable variables have on the rate of this reaction. cg. The reaction is between the two chemicals: sodium thiosulphate solution and dilute hydrochloric acid. They react as in the equations below: sodium thiosulphate + hydrochloric acid � sodium chloride + sulphur + sulphur dioxide + water Na2S2O3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) � 2NaCl(aq) + S(s) + SO2(g) + H2O(l) Background Knowledge The rate of a reaction depends on four factors: * Temperature * Concentration * Catalyst * Size of Particles/ Surface Area A catalyst is a separate substance, which speeds up a reaction. Once the reaction has occurred the catalyst is left behind. This makes it unsuitable for the type of experiment I am going to do. A catalyst is also discontinuous variable. Foucault Particles can only collide when the two sorts can meet, therefore a reaction can only occur on the surface of the material. By increasing the area of the material, which is available to collide, the speed of the reaction will increase. This variable is very hard to control the exact surface area of the two reactants as they both come in an aqueous solution. In this particular investigation the two variables, which are going to change, are temperature and concentration. The Collision Theory explains these reaction rates, as they are based on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other. Reactions only happen if the particles collide with enough energy. The initial energy is known as the activation energy, it is needed to break the initial bonds. ...read more.

Middle

The apparatus should be rinsed out well to be used again. The method is repeated for the varied concentrations of water and sodium thiosulphate solution, keeping the concentration of Hydrochloric Acid constant. � For the second experiment: The identical concentrations of water, Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate as in the first experiment were used for the second. Each chemical is measured out in separate measuring cylinders and placed in separate boiling tubes. 80cm3 of water is measured out into the beaker. The beaker is placed over the gauze on top of the tripod, which is placed on a heatproof mat. The thermometer is placed inside the water bath. A stopwatch, 'X' marked paper, which is underneath a separate beaker are all ready to be used at this point. The three boiling tubes are placed in the water bath along with the thermometer. The Bunsen burner is lit with a constant blue flame underneath the water bath. Once the thermometer has reached the desired heat, it is recorded and the three boiling tubes are removed as quickly as possible to allow for the least amount of heat loss possible. The three chemicals are quickly poured into the separate beaker and the stopwatch is started. At this point the temperature is recorded for the second time. Once the 'X' is no longer visible the stopwatch is stopped and the time is recorded. An average of the two temperatures is made for accuracy. The apparatus is washed thoroughly. This method is repeated until all the required results are recorded for the varied concentrations. The following diagrams may be used for a visual method: Diagrams 1) 2) Fair Test To make sure the experiment is fair I will perform the following procedures: � There was a constant volume in all of liquid in all of the experiments. ...read more.

Conclusion

The results should have been repeated a few times and an average taken to make sure of their accuracy. The second experiment was found to be the most complicated due to the three separate boiling tubes and the need for speed. From the graphs it reveals that these are the most varied results. An average temperature was taken for accuracy, although the entire experiment should have been repeated for a second time to have acquired a set of 2 results. I am happy with the variety of results given within the time limit and feel they are adequate for the graphs to be drawn up well. If I could I would have spent more time getting my temperature closer to the designated temperature. The thermometer reading was not completely accurate as it was not digital. A water bath could have been used to programme the liquids to the desired temperature. These inaccuracies could be the cause for many of the failed results. The equipment was rinsed with tap water, which contains many impurities, which may have contaminated the liquids. Distilled water should have been used as it is pure and has no impurities. To make this investigation completely flawless, the fair test would have to be followed very carefully. Higher tech equipment should be used for more accurate results as well as one person performing the experiment to understand the experiment completely. Although there are these inaccuracies the overall results proved to be adequate. To further my investigation on rates of reaction I could have performed experiments with different variables. I could investigate the two variables; using a catalyst and surface area. Although these two variables are predicted to be more complicated due to their individual characteristics other chemicals and methods could be used. Performing more investigations will provide a wider understanding for the theme, rates of reaction. ...read more.

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