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Investigation: Enzyme Activity

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigation: Enzyme Activity Aim: To investigate how the concentration of hydrogen peroxide effects the rate of reaction of an enzyme (catalase) Variables: These factors could effect the rate of reaction on an enzyme: * pH * Concentration * Temperature * Surface Area pH - Enzymes function at different pH values. In neutral conditions the amount of oxygen gas given of in an enzyme-catalysed reaction will increase. An enzyme is affected by how much acid or alkali is present. Many enzymes work best in neutral conditions but some prefer acids and some prefer alkalis. This graph shows that the enzyme activity reacts best at pH7 (neutral) Concentration - In concentrated solution there are more collisions between each particle, so the reaction occurs more quickly. This graph shows that increasing the concentration increases the enzyme activity. Temperature - Reactions go faster as temperature rises. The rate of reaction also increases as the temperature rises, but with enzyme-catalysed reactions the reaction rate starts to decrease when the temperature is above 40 C. This is because enzymes are proteins and their structures start to damage above 40 C. This graph shows that the enzyme activity reacts best at 40?C as the enzyme starts to denature above 40?C Surface Area - Reactions can react faster when solids are cut into smaller pieces. This is because there is more surface area which is exposed. The more surface area there is, the more collisions that take place between particles so the reaction rate is much quicker. This graph shows that small pieces react better than bigger pieces. Brief Outline I will test the effects of changing the level of concentration. For this variable I will use three different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide with catalase (enzyme). I will change the concentration whilst keeping the time, concentration of catalase and the volume of hydrogen peroxide constant. I will begin all my tests at a constant temperature (room temperature) ...read more.

Middle

Constant Factors: Equipment used - by using the same equipment throughout all the experiments. Time - by allowing each experiment to proceed for only 2 minutes (trial experiment - 1 minute because we will be testing the experiment for any problems) Concentration of - by using the same concentration of catalase (1%) throughout catalase all the experiments. Volume of catalase - by using the same volume of catalase throughout all the experiments. Volume of H202 - by using the same volume of H202 throughout all the experiments. Temperature - by using the same reaction temperature (room temperature) throughout all the experiments. Variable factor Concentration - by carrying out the experiment using different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (1.5%, 3%, 6%). I will use different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide throughout the experiments and carry out three tests for each concentration. This will help me calculate an average result (line of best fit on a graph) and also increase the accuracy of my experiments. Evaluating I can improve my method to give me better results by using a wider range of concentration of hydrogen peroxide. This would then give me more results in which I can use to draw up a better conclusion. I could also improve my experiment by collecting the oxygen gas in a different way. I could use the method of displacement to collect the oxygen gas. This would help me get accurate results of how much oxygen gas evolved. Another improvement I could use in my experiment is by using a bigger gas syringe to collect the oxygen gas. This is because the syringe I used was too small and the oxygen gas filled the syringe causing the end of the syringe to come out. A bigger syringe would help me find out how much oxygen gas was actually being produced. If I was to do this experiment again I would definitely change the time in which we measured the oxygen gas. ...read more.

Conclusion

85 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 90 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 95 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 105 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 110 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 115 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 120 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 I will use column 2,3 and 4 for my average because these columns have the nearest results to each other and the range of results are realistic. Time (s) Temperature (oC) 1.5% Temperature (oC) 3% Temperature (oC) 6% 0 20.5 21.0 21.0 2 20.5 21.5 21.5 4 21.0 21.5 21.5 6 21.5 21.5 21.5 8 22.0 22.0 22.0 10 23.0 22.0 22.0 12 24.0 22.5 22.5 14 25.0 23.0 22.5 16 25.5 23.5 23.0 18 26.0 24.0 23.5 20 26.5 24.5 24.0 22 27.0 25.0 24.5 24 27.0 25.5 25.0 26 27.5 26.0 25.5 28 27.5 27.0 26.0 30 27.5 28.0 27.0 32 28.0 29.5 28.0 34 28.0 30.5 29.5 36 28.0 31.5 30.5 38 28.0 33.0 31.5 40 28.0 34.5 33.0 42 28.0 36.0 34.5 44 28.0 37.0 36.0 46 28.0 38.0 37.0 48 28.0 39.0 38.0 50 28.0 40.0 39.0 52 28.0 41.0 40.0 54 28.0 42.0 41.0 56 28.0 43.0 42.0 58 28.0 43.5 43.0 60 28.0 44.0 43.5 62 28.0 45.0 44.0 64 28.0 45.0 45.0 66 28.0 45.5 45.0 68 28.0 76.0 45.5 70 28.0 46.5 46.0 72 28.0 46.5 46.5 74 28.0 47.0 46.5 76 28.0 47.5 47.0 78 28.0 47.5 47.5 80 28.0 47.5 47.5 82 28.0 48.0 47.5 84 28.0 48.5 48.0 86 28.0 48.5 48.0 88 28.0 48.5 48.5 90 28.0 48.5 48.5 92 28.0 48.5 48.5 94 28.0 48.5 48.5 96 28.0 48.5 48.5 98 28.0 48.5 48.5 100 28.0 49.0 493 102 28.0 49.0 49.0 104 28.0 49.0 49.0 106 28.0 49.0 49.0 108 28.0 49.0 49.0 110 28.0 49.0 49.0 112 28.0 49.0 49.0 114 28.0 49.0 49.0 116 28.0 49.0 49.0 118 28.0 49.0 49.0 120 28.0 49.0 49.0 122 28.0 49.0 49.0 ...read more.

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